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What were the main clans of the Sengoku period?

What were the main clans of the Sengoku period?



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I'm looking for some kind of authoritative list of the main clans operating during the Sengoku period, if possible with each clan's kamon but most importantly which geographical areas they controlled.

I know I'm asking for quite a lot but I have difficulty finding anything I can deem reliable.


See this link

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/People_of_the_Sengoku_period_in_popular_culture


Clans

Abe Clan (阿倍氏) - The Abe clan (the original kanji used for the Abe clan was 阿部氏, later 安倍氏) was one of the nobles derived from Gozoku (local ruling family) of ancient Japan.

Abe clan (Oshu) (安倍氏 (奥州)) - The Abe clan was a Gozoku (local ruling family) in Mutsu Province (later Rikuchu Province, and Oshu is another name of Mutsu Province) who lived during the Heian period.

Aihara Clan (粟飯原氏) - The Aihara clan was a samurai family that played an active role during the Medieval Period.

Akamatsu clan (赤松氏) - The Akamatsu clan was a daimyo (Japanese feudal lord), who ruled the Harima Province during the late Kamakura to Azuchi-Momoyama periods.

Ando clan (安東氏) - The Ando (安東) clan was a samurai family, which ruled extensively from Tsugaru region of Mutsu Province, situated in the northernmost region on the Japan Sea side of Honshu to the Akita Country of Dewa Province, during the medieval Japan.

Anegakoji/Anekoji family (姉小路家) - The Anegakoji/Anekoji family were court nobility of Fujiwara lineage.

Ano Family (阿野家) - The Ano family belonged to the court nobility and had a status of Urin.

Asai Family (朝井家) - The Asai family was a Japanese clan.

Asakura clan (朝倉氏) - Asakura clan was a local ruling family whose home base was Echizen Province, and the clan later ascended to be a sengoku daimyo (Japanese territorial lord in the Sengoku Period).

Ashikaga Shogunate Family (足利将軍家) - The branch of the main families of the Ashikaga clan (head family) that had inherited the post of Seii taishogun (literally, "great general who subdues the barbarians") of the Muromachi bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by shogun) since the first generation of Takauji ASHIKAGA was referred to as the Ashikaga Shogunate family.

Ayabe Domain (綾部藩) - The Ayabe Domain existed in Tanba Province (Aono cho or Hongu cho, Ayabe City, Kyoto Prefecture in the present day).

Ayanokoji Family (綾小路家) - The Ayanokoji family was a member of Genji Tosho Genji (Minamoto clan members who are court nobles above a certain rank), descendants of Uda-Genji (Minamoto clan).

Azai Clan (浅井氏) - Azai clan (also referred to as Azai-shi, Azai uji) was a Japanese clan.

Bojo family (坊城家) - Bojo family were kuge (court nobles) with kakaku (family status) of meike (the fourth highest status for court nobles).

Bomon Family (坊門家) - The Bomon family was an aristocratic family that lived from the Kamakura period into the Muromachi period.

Chigusa Family (千種家) - The Chigusa family is a Japanese clan.

Daidoji Clan (大道寺氏) - The Daidoji clan is one of the Japanese clans.

Daigo family (醍醐家) - Daigo family are a kuge (court nobles) with kakaku (family status) of seigake (the second highest family status for court nobles).

Date clan (伊達氏) - The Date clan (or the Idate clan) was a samurai family which designated itself as the Fujiwara no Yamakage line of the Northern House of the Fujiwara clan and prospered in the southern Tohoku region from the Kamakura Period through the Edo Period.

Edo Clan (江戸氏) - The Edo clan was a shizoku (family) in Japan.

Fujii family (藤井家) - The Fujii family was a toshoke (within the hereditary lineage of court nobles allowed to enter the tenjonoma in the palace) down line of the Urabe clan.

Fujinami Family (藤波家) - The Fujinami family, which claimed to be descended from the Onakatomi clan, belonged to the Tosho-ke (the hereditary lineage of Court nobles occupying relatively high ranks).

Fujiwara Nanke (Fujiwara Nan Family) (藤原南家) - The Southern House of the Fujiwara clan was a family line whose originator was FUJIWARA no Muchimaro, the eldest son of FUJIWARA no Fuhito, the minister of the right.

Fukuchiyama Domain (福知山藩) - The Fukuchiyama Domain was located in Amada County in Tanba Province (present-day Naiki, Fukuchiyama City, Kyoto Prefecture).

Funabashi Family (舟橋家) - The Funabashi family are descendants of Imperial Prince Toneri, the son of the fourtieth emperor, Emperor Tenmu.

Funya clan (文室氏) - The Funya clan was a descendent clan of Naga no Miko (Imperial Prince Naga), a son of the Emperor Tenmu.

Fusehara family (伏原家) - The Fusehara family was a toshoke (the hereditary lineage of court nobles allowed to enter the tenjonoma in the palace) that was a branch family of the Funabashi family in direct line of descent from the Kiyohara clan.

Fushimi Domain (伏見藩) - The Fushimi Domain existed in Fushimi in the Yamashiro Province (present day Fushimi Ward, Kyoto City, Kyoto Prefecture).

Gamo Clan (蒲生氏) - The Gamo clan is a Japanese clan.

Gojo Family (五条家) - The Gojo family is a kuge (family of court nobles) and a toshoke (hereditary lineage of court nobles above a certain rank), whose patriarch was Takanaga GOJO (Junii - Junior Second Rank), Shikibusho (Ministry of Ceremonies) (1210 - 1285), who was a son of Shonii (Senior Second Rank), Sangi (councilor) and Ministry of Treasury, SUGAWARA no Tamenaga (Tamenaga TAKATSUJI).

Hachijo Uesugi Family (八条上杉家) - The Hachijo Uesugi family is one of the many families of the Uesugi clan.

Hagiwara family (萩原家) - The Hagiwara family was a toshoke (within the hereditary lineage of court nobles allowed to enter the tenjonoma in the palace) and their original name was Urabe.

Hamuro family (葉室家) - The Hamuro family were kuge (court nobles) with kakaku (family status) of meike (the fourth highest status for court nobles).

Hanke (Kuge) (半家 (公家)) - Hanke (a kind of family status of the Court nobles) is a classification term for the court noble class established subsequent to the Kamakura period being the lowest-ranked family in social standing among Tosho-ke (high court nobility allowed to enter the Imperial Palace).

Hashiba clan (羽柴氏) - The Hashiba clan was a clan founded by Hideyoshi TOYOTOMI.

Hashimoto Family (橋本家) - The Hashimoto family

Hata Clan (秦氏) - The Hata clan had existed since ancient times.

Higashibojo Family (東坊城家) - The Higashibojo Family, one of the houses of Dojo, was established by Shigenaga HIGASHIBOJO (Court Rank, Councillor, Department of Etiquette and Ceremonies, 1284-1343) who was the second son of Nagatsune GOJO (Senior Second Rank, Councillor, Department of Justice, 1242-1315).

Higashifushiminomiya Family (東伏見宮) - The Higashifushiminomiya family is the Imperial family, which was founded by Imperial Prince Higashifushiminomiya Yorihito, a son of Imperial Prince Fushiminomiya Kuniie, during the late Meiji Era.

Higashikuze Family (東久世家) - The Higashikuze family was a Kuge who had the family grade of Urin.

Higashisono Family (東園家) - The Higashisono family was founded by Motonori HIGASHISONO (Jushiinojo - Junior Fourth Rank, Upper Grade, Headquarters of the Inner Palace Guards), the second son of Mototada SONO (or Mototo SONO).

Hino Family (日野家) - The Hino Family is a court noble having meika, the upper rank of kuge (the status of the house) of the House of the Fujiwara North Line of the Fujiwara clan.

Hinonishi Family (日野西家) - The Hinonishi family were kuge (court nobles) with kakaku (family status) of meike (the fourth highest family status for court nobles).

Hiramatsu family (平松家) - Belonged to the lineage of the Prince Takamune of the Taira clan, the Hiramatsu was a family of dojo kuge (nobles occupying relatively high ranks) of which the founder was Tokitsune HIRAMATSU (Chunagon (vice-councilor of state) of Junii (Junior Second Rank)) (1599-1654), the second son of Tokiyoshi NISHINOTOIN (Sangi (councilor) of Junii (Junior Second Rank)) (1552-1640).

Hirata Family (平田家) - The Hirata family was a low ranked court official family called 'jigeke,' of the Nakahara clan line.

Hirohashi family (広橋家) - Hirohashi family were kuge (court nobles) with kakaku (family status) of meike (the fourth highest status for court nobles).

Hirohata Family (広幡家) - The Hirohata family was a court noble with the social standing of the Seiga family (Shinke or a newly established family, Uchiuchi or a family with close relations with Emperor).

Hojo clan (北条氏) - The Hojo clan was a gozoku (local ruling family) originating in Izu Province which provided hereditary regents of the Kamakura bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun).

HOJO Yasuie (北条泰家) - Yasuie HOJO (? - 1335) was from the Hojo family which existed in the period of the Northern and Southern Courts (Japan).

Honami Family (穂波家) - The Honami family was Toshoke and a collateral branch of the Kajuji family line of the Northern House of the FUJIWARA clan, with the court noble family rank of Meike.

Horikawa Family (堀河家) - The Horikawa family were kuge (court nobles) and held the house status of the Urin family.

Hosokawa clan (細川氏) - Hosokawa clan was a samurai family that prospered between the Kamakura period to the Edo period, the original family name was Genji.

House of Ichijo (一条家) - The Ichijo Family is one of the sekke (regent) houses and a kuge (court nobility).

House of minister (大臣家) - The house of minister was one of the kakaku (family status) of kuge (court noble) and it was kakaku after Sekke (line of regents and advisers) and the Seiga family (one of the highest court noble families in Japan at that time).

Ii clan (井伊氏) - The Ii clan was a master's house of the Hikone Domain in Omi Province.

Ikegami Family (池尻家) - The Ikegami family was Toshoke and a collateral branch of the Seikanji family line of the Northern House of the FUJIWARA clan.

Imagawa Clan (今川氏) - The Imagawa clan was a samurai family in Japan.

Ise clan (伊勢氏) - The Ise clan is a Japanese clan.

Ishibashi Clan (石橋氏) - The Ishibashi clan is the name of a samurai family in Japan.

Isshiki Clan (Isshikiuji) (一色氏) - The Isshiki clan comprised a samurai family.

Itsutsuji Family (五辻家) - The Itsutsuji family is a member of Genji Tosho Genji (Minamoto clan members who are court nobles above a certain rank), descendants of Uda-Genji (Minamoto clan).

Iwai Family (石井家) - The Iwai family, which claimed to be descended from the Kanmu-Heishi (Taira clan) TAIRA no Takamune-o line, beloged to the Tosho-ke (the hereditary lineage of Court nobles occupying relatively high ranks).

Iwakura Family (岩倉家) - The Iwakura family was a Court noble lineage that was descended from the Murakami-Genji (Minamoto clan) Koga family.

Jigeke (Jige Families) (地下家) - Jigeke was a family status of court officials who were not permitted to enter the Courtiers' Hall in the Imperial Palace.

Jikoji Family (慈光寺家) - The Jikoji family is a member of Genji Tosho Genji (Minamoto clan members who are court nobles above a certain rank), descendants of Uda-Genji (Minamoto clan).

Jimyoin Family (持明院家) - The Jimyoin family was a Japanese clan (court nobles).

Kadenokoji/Kageyukoji Family (勘解由小路家) - The Kadenokoji/Kageyukoji family is a Japanese clan.

Kainosho clan (甲斐庄氏) - The Kainosho clan was one of Japan's clans.

Kajuji Family (勧修寺家) - The Kajuji (also pronounced Kanjuji) family was a court noble family of the Kajuji line of the Northern House of the Fujiwara clan.

Kajuji/Kanjuji Ryu (The Kajuji/Kanjuji lineage) (勧修寺流) - The Kajuji/Kanjuji ryu is one of the lineages of court nobility of FUJIWARA no Takafuji-ryu of the Northern House of the Fujiwara clan.

Kamo Clan (賀茂氏) - The Kamo clan (or the Kamoji clan) is a Japanese family which has a past stretching back to ancient times.

Kanroji Family (甘露寺家) - The Kanroji family was "Tosho-ke" (the hereditary lineage of Court nobles occupying relatively high ranks) of the main branch of the Kajuji line of the Takafuji group of the Northern House of the Fujiwara clan, and its social standing was prestigious family.

Karahashi family (唐橋家) - The Karahashi family, one of the houses of Dojo, was established by SUGAWARA no Ariyoshi (Court Rank, Department of Civil Office and Education, Conferred Junior Third Rank, 1041 - 1121).

Kasuga Family (春日家) - The Kasuga family was one of Japan's noble families.

Katano Family (交野家) - The Katano family, which claimed to be descended from Kanmu-Heishi (Taira clan) TAIRA no Takamune-o line, belonged to the Tosho-ke (the hereditary lineage of Court nobles occupying relatively high ranks) the founder of the family was Tokisada KATANO (Daizen no daibu, or Master of the Palace Table), who was the last son of Tokiyoshi NISHINOTOIN (Junii Sangi, or Junior Second Rank, Councilor) (1552 - 1640).

Katsuraki clan (葛城氏) - The Katsuraki clan was a powerful local clan who had their base in the Kazuraki region of the Yamato Province (present day Gose city and Katsuraki city, Nara Prefecture) during the Kofun period (tumulus period).

Kazanin Family (花山院家) - The Kasannoin family was directly descended from the Northern House of the Fujiwara clan-Morozane branch (Kazanin branch).

Kazoku (華族) - Kazoku indicates the noble class that existed in modern Japan from 1869 to 1947.

Kideranomiya Family (木寺宮) - The Kideranomiya family was one of Imperial Houses that existed from the Kamakura period through to the middle of the Muromachi period.

Kii Tanabe domain (紀伊田辺藩) - The Kii Tanabe domain was governed by the Mikawa Ando clan, who were the chief retainers of the Kishu Tokugawa family and were granted the fief in Kii Province for helping successive lords of Kishu.

Kikuchi clan (菊池氏) - The Kikuchi clan is one of Japanese clans.

Kikutei family (菊亭家) - The Kikutei family were kuge (court nobles) with kakaku (family status) of seigake (the second highest family status for court nobles).

Kira clan (吉良氏) - The Kira clan is one of the most prestigious samurai families in Japan listed below are this family's three notable lines of descent.

Kishu Tokugawa family (紀州徳川家) - The Kishu Tokugawa family was one of branches of the Tokugawa family and one of Tokugawa Gosanke (three privileged branches of the Tokugawa family), which governed Kii Province and Ise province during the Edo period

Kiyohara clan (清原氏) - The Kiyohara clan was a family (lineage) of the Heian period.

Kiyooka Family (清岡家) - The Kiyooka family is a toshoke (hereditary lineage of court nobles above a certain rank) established during the Edo period by Nagatoki KIYOOKA (Junii - Junior Second Rank), Sangi (councilor), Shikibusho (Minister of Ceremonies) (1657 - 1718), who was the second son of Tameyasu GOJO (Shonii -Senior Second Rank) Dainagon (chief councilor of state) (1619 - 1677).

Kobayakawa Clan (小早川氏) - The Kobayakawa clan is a shizoku (clan) in Japan.

Koga Family (久我家) - The Koga family is a Japanese clan.

Konoe Family (近衛家) - The Konoe Family was the premier court nobility of the sekke (Setsu Family).

Kose school (巨勢派) - The Kose school was a family of painters which existed from the early Heian period, through the Muromachi, to the Meiji period.

KOTOKUI family (幸徳井家) - The KOTOKUI family was based in Nanto, Nara, and was a Jige-ke (family status of non-noble retainers who are not allowed into the Emperor's living quarters in the imperial palace)that served and practiced Onmyodo (a way of Yin and Yang occult divination system based on the Taoist theory of the five elements).under the government.

Kuge (court noble) (公家) - Kuge is a general term to refer to nobles and government officials who serve chotei (Imperial Court) in Japan.

Kujo Family (九条家) - The Kujo Family is one of the Sekke and a court noble.

Kurahashi Family (倉橋家) - The Kurahashi family was a "Tosho-ke" (the hereditary lineage of Court nobles occupying relatively high ranks) of a branch family of Tsuchimikado of the Abe clan and its social standing was hange, kuge of lower rank.

Kusunoki clan (楠木氏) - The Kusunoki clan was Gozoku, a local ruling family of the Kawachi Province, and a samurai family of the Southern Court of Japan.

Kuwabara Family (桑原家) - The Kuwabara family is a toshoke (hereditary lineage of court nobles above a certain rank) established during the Edo period by Nagayoshi KUWABARA (Shonii - Senior Second Rank), Chunagon (vice-councilor of state), Shikibusho (Minister of Ceremonies) (1661 - 1737), who was the fourth son of Tameyasu GOJO (Shonii - Senior Second Rank), Dainagon (chief councilor of state) (1619 - 1677).

Kuze Family (久世家) - The Kuze family was a Tosho-ke (the hereditary lineage of Court nobles occupying relatively high ranks) (new family) of the Murakami-Genji (Minamoto clan) line.

Kyogoku clan (京極氏) - The Kyogoku clan is a house of Samurai in Japan.

Madenokoji family (万里小路家) - The Madenokoji family were kuge (court nobles) with kakaku (family status) of meike (the fourth highest status for court nobles).

Matsuda Clan (松田氏) - The Matsuda clan was a clan of the Hatano family, FUJIWARA no Hidesato house, originated in Matsuda-go in Ashigarakami County, Sagami Province.

Matsudono Family (松殿家) - The Matsudono Family, established as a house of Regents and Senior Regents was, in theory, ranked at the same level as the houses of Regents such as the Konoe family and the Kujo family in the Court nobility.

Matsui Clan (松井氏) - The Matsui clan was a Japanese clan.

Matsunaga clan (松永氏) - The Matsunaga clan was a warlord group in Yamato-no-kuni.

Matsunoki Family (松木家) - The Matsunoki family (also known as the Nakamikado family) was a dojoke (a family whose members were allowed to visit the Imperial Palace) that belonged to the main branch of the Nakamikado line of the Northern House of the Fujiwara family.

Meike (important noble family) (kuge (court noble)) (名家 (公家)) - Meike (also pronounced Meika) was one of the kakaku (family status) of kuge (court noble) established after the Kamakura period and it was of equal rank to the House of Urin and positioned in a higher rank than hanke (a kind of family status of the Court nobles) (kuge).

Mimurodo Family (三室戸家) - The Mimurodo family (pronunciation 'Mimuroto' is a recording error) held the court noble family rank of Meike.

Minamoto Clan (源氏) - The Minamoto clan (Genji) is a family whose honorary surname was Minamoto.

Minase Family (水無瀬家) - The Minase family fell under the FUJIWARA no Takaie line of the Northern House of the Fujiwara clan, and was Toshoke.

Mito Tokugawa family (水戸徳川家) - The Mito Tokugawa family was one of branches of the Tokugawa family rooted in Mito City in Hitachi Province, and one of Tokugawa Gosanke (three privileged branches of the Tokugawa family).

Miyazu han (Miyazu domain) (宮津藩) - Miyazu han was one of the han (feudal lord's domain) located in Yosa County, Tango Province, during the Edo period.

Miyoshi clan (三善氏) - The Miyoshi is one of clans in Japan.

Miyoshi Clan (三好氏) - Miyoshi clan belongs to Shinano Genji (Minamoto clan) and it is the descendants of shugo (a provincial government) Ogasawara clan in Awa Province in Kamakura period.

Mizuno Clan (水野氏) - The Mizuno clan is a family of Seiwa-genji (Minamoto clan).

Mogami Clan (最上氏) - The Mogami clan was a branch family of the Shiba clan (kanrei [shogunal deputy]) that belonged to the same family of the Ashikaga clan of Seiwa-Genji (Minamoto clan).

Mori clan (毛利氏) - The Mori clan is one of the samurai families.

Murakami-Genji (Minamoto clan) (村上源氏) - Murakami-Genji was a shisei kozoku (member of the Imperial Family conferred with a family name) who was descended from a son of the sixty second Emperor, Murakami.

Muromachi Family (室町家) - The Muromachi family was court nobility with a family status of the Urin.

Mushanokoji Family (武者小路家) - The Mushanokoji family was a Japanese clan (court nobles).

Nagatani Family (長谷家) - The Nagatani family, which claimed to be descended from the Kanmu-Heishi (Taira clan) TAIRA no Takamune-o line, belonged to the Tosho-ke (the hereditary lineage of Court nobles occupying relatively high ranks) the founder of the family was Tadayasu NAGATANI (Shosanmi Minbu taifu, or Senior Third Rank, Senior Assistant Minister of Popular Affairs) (1612 - 1669), who was the fifth son of Tokiyoshi NISHINOTOIN (Junii Sangi, or Junior Second Rank, Councilor) (1552 -1640).

Naito clan (内藤氏) - Naito-shi or Naito-uji is a Japanese surname.

Nakahara Clan (中原氏) - The Nakahara clan was a group of noble families sharing the same ancestor, which existed from ancient times to the early-modern times in Japan.

NAKAHARA no Yorisue (中原頼季) - NAKAHARA no Yorisue (year of birth and death unknown) was a late Heian-period nobleman and legal scholar.

Nakamikado Line (中御門流) - The Nakamikado line was a clan of court nobles descended from the Northern House of the FUJIWARA clan.

Nakanoin family (中院家) - The Nakanoin family were kuge (court nobles) with kakaku (family status) of daijinke (the third highest status for court nobles).

Nakanomikado Family (中御門家) - The Nakanomikado family

Nakatomi Clan (中臣氏) - The Nakatomi clan, together with the Inbe clan, was a powerful family serving the Yamato court in ancient Japan, who took charge of Shinto rituals and religious services, and had occupied the region Yamashina -approximately corresponding to today's Nakatomi-cho, Yamashina Ward, Kyoto City - as their base through the ages.

Nakayama family (中山家) - The Nakayama family were kuge (court nobles) with kakaku (family status) of urinke (the fourth highest family status for court nobles).

Nanba Family (難波家) - The Nanba family was a court noble family of Toshoke and their family rank was Urinke.

Nijo Family (二条家) - The Nijo Family is one of the sekke (regent) houses and a kuge (court nobility).

Nikki no Ie (Houses with Diaries) (日記の家) - Nikki no Ie (Houses with Diaries) is a nickname used to describe noble houses whose members kept diaries recording events relating to their families, and who passed these diaries down from generation to generation.

Nishigori family (錦織家) - The Nishigori family was a toshoke (within the hereditary lineage of court nobles allowed to enter the tenjonoma in the palace) down line of the Urabe clan.

Nishinotoin family (西洞院家) - The Nishinotoin was a Kuge (court noble) family descended from TAIRA no Takamune of the Taira clan.

Nishioji Family (西大路家) - The Nishioji family was a court noble family with the rank of Urinke.

Nitta clan (新田氏) - Nitta clan is a Gozoku (local ruling family) originated in Kozuke Province.

Niwata family (庭田家) - The Niwata family, one of the clans of Dojo, was descended from the Uda-Genji (Minamoto) clan.

Nonomiya Family (野宮家) - The Nonomiya family were Japanese kuge (court nobles).

Northern House of the Fujiwara clan (藤原北家) - The Northern House of the Fujiwara clan was a family line whose originator was FUJIWARA no Fusasaki, the second son of FUJIWARA no Fuhito, the minister of the right.

Oda Clan (織田氏) - The Oda clan was a clan in Japan.

Oe clan (大江氏) - The Oe clan were nobles from ancient times until early modern times.

Ogasawara Clan (小笠原氏) - The Ogasawara clan is one of the Japanese clans.

Ogimachi family (正親町家) - The Ogimachi family were kuge (court nobles) with kakaku (family status) of urinke (the fourth highest family status for court nobles).

Ogimachisanjo Family (正親町三条家) - The Ogimachisanjo family was a branch family of the Sanjo family which was the Kan-in Line of the Northern House of the Fujiwara clan, being a family of court nobles with their social standing being the house of minister.

Ogura family (小倉家) - The Ogura family were kuge (court nobles) with kakaku (family status) of urinke (the fourth highest family status for court nobles).

Ohara Family (大原家) - The Ohara family was a member of Genji Tosho Genji (Minamoto clan members who were court nobles above a certain rank), descendants of Uda-Genji (Minamoto clan).

Oinomikado family (大炊御門家) - Oinomikado family were kuge (court nobles) with kakaku (family status) of seigake (the second highest family status for court nobles).

Okazaki Family (岡崎家) - The Okazaki family were Toshoke and a collateral branch of the Nakanomikado family of the Takato line (Kajuji line) of the Northern House of the FUJIWARA clan, with the court noble family rank of Meike.

Omura Domain (大村藩) - Omura Domain was a feudal domain that ruled the Sonogi region of Hizen Province.

Ononomiya School (小野宮流) - The Ononomiya school was a school of Yusoku-kojitsu (knowledge of court rules, ceremony, decorum and records of the past), which dated back to the Heian period.

Oshikoji Family (押小路家) - The Oshikoji family (also known as the Oshinokoji family)

Oshu Fujiwara clan (奥州藤原氏) - The Oshu Fujiwara clan was the clan whose power stretched over the entire Tohoku region, which centered on Hiraizumi in Mutsu Province (later Rikuchu Province) and included Dewa Province, from 1087 after the Zenkunen War (the Early Nine Years' War) and the Gosannen War (the Later Three Years' War) to 1189, when it was destroyed by MINAMOTO no Yoritomo.

Otani Family (大谷家) - Otanike (Otani family) is the yago (literally, the "house name") of the descendants of Kakue, a son of Hirotsuna HINO and Kakushin-ni.

Ouchi Clan (大内氏) - Ouchi clan is one of clans in Japan.

Owari Tokugawa family (尾張徳川家) - The Owari Tokugawa family was a subsidiary line of the Tokugawa family and one of Tokugawa Gosanke (three privileged branches of the Tokugawa family) and its successive family heads assumed the lord of Owari Domain.

Oyumi-kubo (小弓公方) - Oyumi-kubo was one of Kubo (shogunate) families of the Ashikaga clan (of Motouji-ryu or the Motouji lineage) in Kanto region.

Ozuki clan (小槻氏) - The Ozuki (Otsuki) was a Kuge (court nobles) clan which could trace its history back to ancient times.


The Sengoku era: the time of castles, samurai and zen

The Sengoku period (1477 - 1573) marked a turning point in the history of Japan. During this period of wars and internal strife, the power of the shoguns was weakened and passed into the hands of the local lords. It is also a period of cultural evolution: Zen influences culture and Westerners arrive.

Political struggles during the Sengoku era

The Sengoku period (1477 - 1573), known as the warring provinces, is a very specific period in Japanese history, marked by numerous military conflicts and social changes. It actually covers the second half of the Muromachi era (1336 - 1573). The Sengoku period is important because it marks the first transition from medieval Japan to modern Japan. It constitutes the last period before the establishment of the Tokugawa shogun dynasty, which marks a significant turning point for Japan.

The Sengoku period opens in a challenging political context: two courts have just torn apart to establish their legitimacy: the southern court, favorable to the domination of the emperor, and the northern court, supporter of the shogun Ashikaga, who took power by force in 1338. One of his successors, Yoshinori Ashikaga, was assassinated in 1441.

Power is waning and peasant revolts break out. The weakness of the shogunate is felt, and the heads of large families, the daimyo , gradually assert themselves as the supreme authority in their region.

The castle, symbol of power

These lords enforce order thanks to the samurai, who are their vassals and owe them full allegiance. Rivalries are not slow to settle the daimyo sport a representative helmet of their clan, the kabuto, and erect fortified castles, symbols of their power and architectural progress. The castles designs were similar: built with a stone base, a wooden frame, a dungeon and surrounded by a moat. Matsumoto Castle considered one of the three most beautiful in Japan along with those of Himeji and Kumamoto, is called the "raven castle" for its black color.

This fragmented power quickly led to a civil war, the war of Onin (1467-1477), which set Kyoto to fire and blood, and which saw the opposition of two families (Yamana and Hosokawa) and ended with the exhaustion of the forces involved and famines severely affecting the population.

It was however, during this period that the three greatest lords of Japan emerged, namely Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu, who then succeeded in unifying the country during the Azuchi-Momoyama era.


Useful Notes / Sengoku Period

"It's time for: Who's Going to Be the Next Shogun? Usually it's the Shogun's kid, but the Shogun doesn't have a kid. So he tries to get his brother to quit being a monk and be the next shogun. He says okay. But then the Shogun has a kid. So now who's it gonna be? Vote now on your phones! And everyone voted so hard that the palace caught on fire and burned down (the shogun actually didn't care, he was off somewhere doing poetry).

And the whole country broke into pieces. Everyone is fighting with each other for local power, and it's anybody's game."

The Sengoku Period (戦国時代, Sengoku Jidai), or the "Warring States Period" (no, not that one) was a period stretching from the mid-fifteenth to the late sixteenth centuries. It is remembered as a time of bloody civil wars and political intrigue which paved the way for the rise of the modern nation of Japan. The last several decades in particular (known as the Azuchi-Momoyama Period) are regarded by many as some of the most crucial in Japanese history.

It is important to note that the Sengoku Period is usually not classified as a period of Japanese history in the same way that the Meiji or Nara Periods are. It is regarded foremost as a cultural period, a time of transition from Japan's medieval to the early modern age. Because it straddles several periods, the Period itself is generally placed within the context of the "official" historical periods it takes place in (Muromachi, Azuchi-Momoyama, and Edo). Dates for the exact start and end of the period are also debated: although it is traditionally marked by the Ōnin War in 1467, some mark the period's beginning in 1490 when the actual power of the Ashikaga was transferred from the shogun to Hosokawa Katsumoto (the shogunal deputy), and others mark it in 1491, when the Hōjō clan began to rise to power in the Kanto region. The end of the period is even more debated, with dates ranging from 1568 (Oda Nobunaga's capture of Kyoto and deposition of the Ashikaga) to 1615 (the Siege of Osaka).

The era stands out as an all-time low point for Japanese unity. Feudal lords were in a constant contest of power with one another, and many of the major historical events of this period were either caused by or resulted in chronic backstabbing. The political authority of the Emperor was also regarded by pretty much everyone as a joke, and he was really little more than a symbolic figurehead. However, even the aforementioned Ashikaga shogunate had very little power worth possessing, as most of it had been splintered among the daimyō. As a result, most daimyō were more concerned with controlling neighboring clans' territories and didn't even bother trying to conquer Kyoto. By 1500, daimyō were acting completely independently of the government. Major clans of this period include (but are not limited to): the Hōjō of Kanto, the Mōri of western Chūgoku, the Chōsokabe of Shikoku, the Shimazu of southern Kyūshū, the Date of Tōhoku, the Oda of Aichi, the Takeda of eastern Chūbu, and the Uesugi of Niigata.

Despite the constant warring, the Sengoku Period also saw a flowering of Japanese culture. The tea ceremony rose to prominence during this time, as did Noh theatre. Books, poetry, and music were widely diffused across the country by Zen Buddhist monks. Shinto, which had been nearly absorbed by Shingon Buddhism over the past few centuries, saw a revived interest that would make it rise to prominence as Japan's dominant religion in the centuries to come (eventually culminating in the rise of State Shinto). Economics also saw a boom during this time, with the daimyō seeking to bolster their armies and enrich their domains. The agricultural and mining industries both boomed, leading to a subsequent rise in commerce and trade. Port cities like Hyōgo (now Kobe), Hakata, Nagasaki, and Sakai became economic hubs. Even Kyoto, despite the ever-changing political powers-that-were leaving the city a wreck, was quickly rebuilt and became an economic and cultural center.

This was also the only time in pre-modern Japan that the country had any sustained interaction with the Western world. The arrival of Portuguese ships in 1543 began a span of time known as the Nanban trade period, which lasted nearly a century. Soon after the Portuguese ships arrived came the Spanish and the Dutch, though most trade happened through the Portuguese. note A fact which was not pleasing to the other European powers and which later became one reason among many for The Dutch-Portuguese War. The effects of this trade were substantial: Japan was introduced to European fabrics, glassware, clocks, tobacco, and most important for its time, firearms. Provinces which traded with the West gained a significant advantage in military combat with the introduction of the arquebus and the cannon, especially since most Japanese fortifications of the time were made of wood and stone. The effect of this trade was also significant enough that there are still loan words in Japanese of Portuguese and Dutch origin, such as "gomu" from "gom" (Dutch for "rubber" or rubber materials), "karuta" from "carta" (Portuguese for playing cards) and "pan" from "pão/pan" (Portuguese/Spanish for "bread", respectively). It also gave the Japanese both the name and the basic recipe for tempura (from Latin tempora for "time", a reference to the Lenten fasting season during which the Catholic Portuguese and Spaniards would often eat fried fish and vegetables because they could not eat meat and battered deep-fried fish/vegetables were traditional in Iberia).

As detailed elsewhere, this was also the time during which Christianity first reached Japan. The first contact was made through the Catholic missionary St. Francis Xavier, note not to be confused with the also-well-known St. Francis of Assisi who arrived with the Portuguese traders in 1549. The daimyō of southern Japan (on the island of Kyūshū), Otomo Sorin, saw an opportunity in Christianity to establish better trade relations with the Portuguese, and so most early missionary work &mdash contrary to the usual form of the time &mdash launched from the top and worked its way down to the commoners, rather than vice-versa (though the largest number of converts still came from the peasants). Nagasaki in particular was greatly affected by Christianity, as before the arrival of the Portuguese and the missionaries it was an insignificant fishing town. Thanks to increased trade between east and west, it gradually transformed into a major economic port and a Christian hub city in its part of the world. Ironically, the persecution and martyrdom of Christians several decades later was carried out primarily in Nagasaki &mdash although when Christianity went underground in Japan, most of these "hidden Christians" ("kakure kirishitan") lived in Nagasaki.

The Sengoku Period is also the period which saw the rise of the shinobi &mdash the Ninja. In reality, the ninja was never a crucial figure of Japanese history and only had any significance for a few decades of the Sengoku Period. Part of the problem is that there aren't many historical records of the ninja - really, we are not even exactly cerrtain what their training was like. Most shinobi were from the lower class of society, so they were usually not skilled in tactics like a samurai would be - although some ninja were Rōnin (masterless samurai), so again, who knows? We do know that the center of their training was always operating in ways that kept them unseen and undetected. They were first and foremost mercenaries, employed by the different warlords for reconnaissance and espionage. Once the Tokugawa rose to power in the 16th century, combat was highly codified with a great emphasis on honor and fair play, and so the ninja (who fought in secrecy, using whatever worked to their advantage) fell out of favor. * Ironically, ninja were employed by Tokugawa Ieyasu and a few of his successors in several campaigns. Many fables were written about the ninja during the Meiji Restoration, which romanticized "classic Japanese" culture, and that is where the myths that a ninja could walk on water, turn invisible, control nature, and use "ninja weapons" and martial arts came from. Thus the ninja became popular again, but it was at this point mainly a cultural icon (a phenomenon comparable to the history of the cowboy in American culture).

The Sengoku Period is often dramatized in Japanese media due to its incredible historical significance. In addition to a large number of historical accounts and documentaries, the Sengoku Period is also the subject of numerous Jidaigeki, with its intricacy and intrigue providing a bounty of material for Japanese writers, poets, filmmakers, and animation studios. The lives, legacies, and personalities of Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and Tokugawa Ieyasu in particular have been scrutinized, romanticized, deconstructed, and theorized over by countless scholars. A popular set of three haiku poems accurately summarizes each leader's personality as follows:

Another popular saying of the three goes: "Nobunaga pounds the national rice cake, Hideyoshi kneads it, and in the end Ieyasu sits down and eats it."

For more information about works which deal specifically with these three figures, check out their respective articles.

Of course, there are many other interesting historical figures besides these three which are worth reading up on, such as Date Masamune, Hattori Hanzo, and Saigō-no-Tsubone (Lady Saigō).

Below follows a more detailed breakdown of the Sengoku Period from start to finish.

In 1338, Ashikaga Takauji seized control of Kyoto from the emperor of Japan and declared himself the shogun (roughly meaning "general", the position was comparable to a generalissimo, effectively a military ruler). This establishment of the Ashikaga shogunate marks the beginning of the Muromachi period of Japanese history, * though some contest it should begin in 1333 with the ill-fated Kemmu Restoration, so named because the new Ashikaga government was established in the Muromachi district of Kyoto.

The early Muromachi Period's strongest political figure was by far Ashikaga Yoshimitsu (1358-1408), the third shogun in line. Yoshimitsu established trade relations with China, ended the warring between the rival Northern and Southern Imperial Courts, was a great patron of the arts, and gave the feudal landlords - the daimyō - greater control over their lands. Unfortunately, Yoshimitsu's successors gradually became weaker and weaker, further decentralizing the government's power and placing more power in the hands of the daimyō.

All of this gave pretext to the Sengoku Period, which is traditionally marked as beginning with the Ōnin War (1467-1477). The Ōnin War began as a relatively local conflict over the succession of the Ashikaga shogunate which escalated into a decade-long war between rivaling warlords vying to control the shogunate. In the end, Kyoto was left practically burned to the ground and the Ashikaga shogunate held power in name only. For many years after, rivaling daimyō would fight for control of the puppet government - although by this point, controlling the court meant very little anyway, as virtually all actual power had been fractured among the many daimyō across Japan.

After several decades of a relative status quo of infighting, the Sengoku Period came to a head with the rise of three key figures who are some of the most important in Japanese history: Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and Tokugawa Ieyasu. Since the bulk of this era's action can in some way be traced back to one of the three, most accounts of the Sengoku Period devote a lot of their time to studying these three figures. We'll focus here specifically on how each of these three men played a role in the period at large. For more personal information on each of the three as individuals, check their respective articles.

The first of Japan's three uniters, Oda Nobunaga, was born in 1534 in the Owari province (modern-day Aichi prefecture), possibly near the city of Nagoya. He was known in his youth for being strange and uncouth, though after the unexpected death of his father in 1551, he quickly proved his military chutzpah by killing his uncle and his brother, who challenged his right of succession. Nobunaga quickly reunited the Oda clan, and by 1559 - at the age of 25 - he had united the whole Owari province under his rule. Nobunaga quickly consolidated and expanded his power over the following decade. In the Battle of Okehazama, Nobunaga defeated the combined forces of the Imagawa and Matsudaira clans, which numbered about 40,000, with a force of only 3,000 by launching a surprise attack and using the poor weather conditions to his advantage. Breaking ties with the weakened Imagawa clan, the Matsudaira clan forged an alliance with the Oda, ending decades of hostility. Who was responsible for this alliance? Matsudaira Motoyasu, better known by his name later in life, Tokugawa Ieyasu. Several years afterward, Nobunaga further increased his power in the Siege of Inabayama Castle, where he took over the neighboring Mino province (modern-day Gifu), greatly extending the Oda clan's reach. At the conclusion of the battle, Nobunaga revealed his ambition for the first time: to conquer all of Japan.

With central Japan firmly under his control, Nobunaga took advantage of his strategically favorable position and set his sights on the capital city of Kyoto. In 1568, he marched on the capital and crushed all opposition. Nobunaga, of course, had no intention of serving the Muromachi shogunate and devoted his work instead to consolidating his territory in central Japan. He spent the next 5 years beating back the opposing daimyō who challenged his rule and had formed into an anti-Oda alliance. The deadliest of these opponents was the legendary general Takeda Shingen, who was said to have the most powerful army in Japan. Marching his army toward Nobunaga's home province of Owari, he easily stomped over Oda's allies and was practically at the front step of Owari when in 1573 he suddenly died of mysterious circumstances (theories range from assassination to stomach cancer). Takeda's forces lost their nerve and quickly retreated to the Kai province, thus saving Nobunaga from near-certain destruction.

The years following Takeda's death officially mark the beginning of the Azuchi-Momoyama Period * named after the castles of Oda Nobunaga and his successor, Toyotomi Hideyoshi , although realistically it began with Nobunaga's conquering of Kyoto in 1568. Shortly after Takeda Shingen's death, he also deposed Ashikaga Yoshiaki, ending the Ashikaga shogunate for good. Nobunaga steadily gained territory on both the western and eastern fronts, gradually expanding his rule and solidifying his reputation as a ruthless and undaunted adversary. This also carried over into the realm of politics: Nobunaga was overall pretty indifferent toward religion, but he recognized the threat that some of the wealthy and/or affluent Buddhist temples could pose a threat to his rule. He suppressed certain sects of Buddhism, especially the Jōdo Shinshū (True Pure Land) Buddhists, who participated in peasant uprisings against the samurai landlords during his rule. In order to overall reduce the power and influence of the Buddhist priests, Nobunaga actually lent support to the Catholic missionary efforts in Japan (at this time, Christianity was still tolerated in Japan). His leniency towards Christianity would unfortunately not be a sympathy shared by his successors - but that's a story for another day. Other innovations and advancements from Nobunaga include the better implementation of pikes and castle fortifications in warfare, as well as the introduction of firearms (brought over by the Portuguese traders) and firearm brigades. He restructured the warrior class system and appointed his retainers and subjects based on ability rather than rank and heritage, as was the common practice of the day. He also laid the foundations for some of the policies his successors would establish by building castle towns as economic centers, encouraging a transition from an economy based on agriculture to one based on manufacture.

Of course, Nobunaga still spent the better part of his time conquering Japan. By 1582, he had conquered the entire Kinai region (roughly equivalent to the modern-day Kansai region), the entire Hokurikudō region (along the Sea of Japan), the San'indō and San'yōdō regions (modern Chūgoku region), and roughly half of the Tōkaidō and Tōsandō regions. His territory spanned as far west and south as northern Kyūshū, as far east as the borders of the Kanto plain, and as far north as Shibata (along the western coast). From his home base of Azuchi castle, close to Kyoto, Oda began aggressively sending out his generals on campaigns to conquer the rest of Japan. Things seemed to be going pretty well, but it wouldn't last. One of Nobunaga's generals, Hashiba Hideyoshi requested reinforcements from Nobunaga for the Siege of Takamatsu Castle in the Chūgoku region. Nobunaga obliged and sent out most of the force he had with him, only leaving a few troops and his personal guard. Nobunaga had every reason to believe he was safe after all, the biggest threats were at the borders of his territory, and he was at the heart of it. Another of Nobunaga's generals, Akechi Mitsuhide, seized this opportunity and marched on Azuchi castle, betraying his lord. Rather than surrender, Nobunaga committed seppuku (ritual suicide) as Akechi's men stormed the gates. Before dying, Nobunaga instructed his page, Mori Ranmaru, to burn the castle, so that his enemies could not take his head. His body was never found. After capturing Azuchi, Mitsuhide attacked Nobunaga's eldest son and heir, Nobutada, who also committed seppuku. This essentially guaranteed that Nobunaga wouldn't have a blood successor. The reasons for Akechi's betrayal and the circumstances of Oda Nobunaga's death are the subject of much speculation, debate, and conspiracy theory. Some say that Akechi had a grudge against Nobunaga others say he wanted Japan for himself some even say he was working together with some of Nobunaga's other generals. Whatever the circumstances, the fruit of Akechi's betrayal was even shorter-lived than Nobunaga. The most powerful man in Japan just died and left all his territory behind, and news like that spreads fast. What followed was a mad scramble by each of Nobunaga's retainers to assemble a power base and seize Nobunaga's legacy for themselves.

The winner of this scramble for power was the previously mentioned general Hashiba Hideyoshi. In only the two weeks after Nobunaga's death, he made a truce with the clan he was currently fighting in the Chūgoku region, marched his army toward Azuchi to intercept Mitsuhide's, and defeated them in the Battle of Yamazaki. Now in a position of power, Hideyoshi secured his leadership by supporting Nobunaga's infant grandson as his successor and proposing a co-leadership to the Oda clan. This quickly turned into to open combat against the Oda clan, but Hideyoshi held his own: by 1584, he had ended all dissent and had secured all of the Oda domain as his own.

Like Nobunaga before him, Hashiba Hideyoshi had never attained the title of shogun. In fact, he wasn't even of noble background: he was a common foot soldier who gradually rose through the ranks. So in 1585, he adopted himself into the Fujiwara clan. The Imperial court also showered him with official titles, and in 1586, the court officially gave Hashiba Hideyoshi the name he is better remembered by: Toyotomi Hideyoshi.

Thus began the second phase of Japan's unification. Oda Nobunaga had already accomplished a lot of the, shall we say, aggressive negotiations, which left Hideyoshi with reinforcing the foundation and tying up the loose ends. From his base of power in Osaka castle, Hideyoshi continued his conquest on the borders of his territory, capturing the northern provinces and Shikoku in 1583 and Kyūshū in 1587. In 1590, Hideyoshi defeated his last opponents, the Hōjō clan of the Kanto region (modern-day Tokyo), in the Siege of Odawara, becoming the first general to unite all of Japan under his rule.

Hideyoshi also enacted some heavy-handed policies to secure his rule. In 1587, he banned all Christian missionaries from Japan out of fear of possible dissent from the converted daimyō in Kyūshū. Since the daimyō who did convert mostly did so out of a desire for stronger trade relations with the West, there was little complaint among the higher-ups about this. Among the lower classes, however, there was considerable dissent, and to make an example, Hideyoshi executed 26 Christians (a mix of Franciscan and Jesuit missionaries) in 1597 in Nagasaki * they are venerated as martyrs in the Catholic Church as St. Paul Miki and Companions . The next several decades would only become more and more difficult for the Japanese "Kirishitans", as they were called. Other precautions carried out by Hideyoshi included the destruction of many castles constructed during the Sengoku Period, the forbidding of samurai as active farmers (forcing them to move to castle towns), restrictions on inter-provincial travel, and the "Sword Hunt" of 1588, where he confiscated the weapons of all farms and religious institutions, only allowing members of the samurai class to bear arms. Hideyoshi's mindset was that more clearly divided social classes would be easier to control (taking their weapons away probably didn't hurt either). Not all of his policies were like this, however - some actually were positive, such as the banning of "unfree labor" (slavery). Hideyoshi also significantly balanced the power of the daimyō. He did this through the introduction of land and production surveys and a national census. Hideyoshi used these surveys to re-partition the land among the daimyō according to output of rice provinces with greater yields of rice were given to his more trusted and higher-ranking daimyō. The positive effect of these policies were affirmed later on when, after taking over from where Hideyoshi started, Tokugawa Ieyasu would continue, consolidate and institutionalize many of them.

Though considered an 'interlude', it was an expensive endeavour, consisting of the largest military mobilization in pre-modern Japanese history, and its first major naval buildup. This concentrated effort would not be repeated again until the first Sino-Japanese War.

Having united Japan and reorganized his infrastructure, Hideyoshi began turning his gaze across the sea and megalomaniacally boasted he would conquer the Ming dynasty in China, and move the capital from Kyoto to Beijing. Though it was speculated that his ulterior motive was to exhaust the excessive military buildup resulting from continuous warfare that only recently concluded, which was taking a toll on the economy. Thus in 1590, Hideyoshi officially requested safe passage to China through Korea. However, Korea refused Hideyoshi's demands, and so from 1592 to 1598 Japan engaged in a sporadic series of invasions of Korea (known there as the Imjin War). Hideyoshi had a strong start - in 1592, he sent 200,000 men to capture Seoul, which they did in a matter of weeks. Kato Kiyomasa even managed to cross the Yalu into Manchuria, but was quickly routed by his Jurchen opposition. Realizing the Japanese army was ill-suited to engage in open-field warfare, Kato Kiyomasa retreated back to Korea, thus marking Manchuria the furthest destination ever reached by the Japanese army during the Imjin War. News of Korea's debacle soon reached the Ming court, and in the following year, the Chinese army poured into Korea. The Chinese and its Korean allies soon recovered Pyongyang, and followed up with a march directly to Hanseong (modern day Seoul). After recovering Hanseong, the allied armies forced the Japanese to pull back, but the latter remained steadfast in their defenses, and attempted to force a stalemate. The war then entered into a period of truce when both Chinese and Japanese delegations, excluding the Koreans, negotiated peace-terms. Unfortunately, Hideyoshi's subordinate, Konishi Yukinaga and Chinese negotiator Shen Weijing conspired to meddle in the diplomatic process by forging correspondences. The result angered both sides, and another war soon became inevitable. A second invasion was then attempted in 1597. In both instances, Japan made decent territorial gains on land, and the Korean forces overall had great difficulty defeating the Japanese head-on. However, the Koreans were skilled in guerrilla warfare, and they used it to great effect: folks ranging from common citizens to aristocrats to warrior monks were arranged into guerrilla militias known as "righteous armies" which engaged in raids and surprise attacks on the Japanese. The Koreans were also effective at cutting off Japan's supply lines special mention goes to Korean naval general Yi Sun-sin, who beat back the Japanese navy on multiple occasions despite being outnumbered, sometimes vastly so (the most famous of these instances being the Battle of Myeongyang). As the war dragged on, Chinese reinforcements continued flowing into Korea, and the Japanese were gradually beaten back. The Japanese made a final stand at the Battle of Sacheon in 1598. Japanese forces clashed with Ming Chinese and Joseon Korean forces until all parties had been beaten to exhaustion. Japanese forces managed to hold its position for a while, but realized it was only time before the entire army would be surrounded, trapped and eventually destroyed. The Japanese forces then proceeded to conduct an orderly retreat, and in 1598, Toyotomi Hideyoshi passed away, thus ending the Korean campaign.

Korea was abandoned, but with the death of Hideyoshi, Japan now had a much bigger problem on its plate: who would succeed Hideyoshi? Hideyoshi had attempted to rectify this problem himself after the birth of his son Hideyori by banishing his nephew (and heir) Hidetsugu to Mt. Kōya and ordering him to commit seppuku in 1595. He then mercilessly killed 31 of Hidetsugu's family members in Kyoto, including women and children. Afterward, he assembled a Council of Five Elders to govern Japan as regents for his son, hoping that the balance of power between his five most powerful daimyō would prevent any conflict until his son came of age. It didn't work.

The presence of Hideyoshi and his brother Hidenaga had managed to keep fighting to a minimum so far, but the death of Maeda Toshiie (the oldest and most respected of the five regent generals), and only a year after the death of Hideyoshi himself, led to infighting among the remaining four. Of these generals, Tokugawa Ieyasu was the most powerful and influential. He had fought both Oda Nobunaga and Toyotomi Hideyoshi in battle before they rose to power - and when they did, he became one of their most powerful generals and trusted allies. So the other generals' lack of trust in Ieyasu was perhaps understandable (his capture of Hideyori's home of Osaka castle after Hideyoshi's death probably didn't do much for him either), but on the other hand, apparently he was given privilege by Hideyoshi to not deploy his own troops even when Hideyoshi was deploying his, and during the Korean Invasion, Ieyasu just stayed in Japan. Since the campaign ended disastrously and left a bitter taste to the Toyotomi clan overall, Ieyasu received favor for not sending his men to unnecessary death. Unfortunately, this mistrust continued to escalate, with general Ishida Mitsunari (who was not one of Hideyoshi's five regent generals) accusing Tokugawa of being unfaithful to Hideyoshi's wishes. Mitsunari planned an attempt on Tokugawa's life, but when Ieyasu's generals learned of this and informed Tokugawa, Tokugawa himself protected Ishida from accusation * His reason for doing so was most likely either to have a more opportune scapegoat for the assassination, or because he recognized the impending conflict and would rather fight a force led by Ishida than one led by a more competent or credible opponent (e.g. one of the other three regents) . Tokugawa put the blame on the Toyotomi loyalists, including the deceased Maeda's son, Toshinaga. In defiance, one of the three regents, Uesugi Kagekatsu, began amassing his military. Ieyasu demanded an explanation before the Emperor, and Uesugi's chief adviser countered with accusations and mockery of Tokugawa's own defiance of Hideyoshi's rules. Furious, Ieyasu amassed his supporters and began marching north on the Uesugi clan. Ishida, seeing an opportunity, amassed Toyotomi's own allies and prepared an offensive on Tokugawa and his supporters. Upon returning to his home base in Edo, Tokugawa learned of the situation and decided to deploy his troops.

Thus began the most important battle in Japanese history: the Battle of Sekigahara. The two sides were split into the Toyotomi loyalists (headed under Ishida and known as the "Western Army") and Tokugawa's supporters (headed under Ieyasu himself and known as the "Eastern Army"). The two armies numbered close to 200,000 men in total, with the Western Army numbering 120,000 and the Eastern Army numbering 75,000 * though by the time the fighting began, both forces were between 80,000-90,000 troops due to the arrival of reinforcements as well as some forces simultaneously being caught up elsewhere .

Ishida marched his troops from Osaka toward Gifu Castle, intending to use it as a staging area for when he would inevitably attack Kyoto. Since Tokugawa was marching from Edo in the east, there were only two main roads available to him, both of which also converged on Gifu Castle. Unfortunately for Ishida, he was delayed in reaching Gifu, as he was busy trying to capture Fushimi Castle, which was a halfway point between Osaka and Kyoto. By the time Ishida captured Fushimi and reached Gifu, Tokugawa's forces had arrived and taken the castle, forcing Ishida's troops to retreat. The Western Army marched southwest through inclement weather and stopped in Sekigahara, tired from the day's journey and with gunpowder wet from the rain.

Tokugawa had been trailing Ishida up to this point. On October 20th, he learned of the Western Army's position in Sekigahara and marched his forces in. Though Tokugawa had the advantage of marching under better weather, it was very foggy, and at dawn on the next day (October 21st) his advance guard ended up smacking into Ishida's army. Both sides panicked and withdrew, bracing their armies for battle. By 8 AM, the fog had cleared. Both sides issued last-second orders and the battle began.

Fukushima Masanori, the leader of Tokugawa's advance guard, charged from the left flank along the Fuji river into the Western Army's right-center. The ground was wet and muddy from the previous day's rain, so the fighting quickly devolved into chaos. To support the attack, Tokugawa then ordered attacks from his right and center on the enemy's left. In response, Ishida ordered his general of the unscathed center flank to support the right, but his general refused, as daimyō only obeyed the orders of respected commanders, which Ishida was not.

The Eastern Army's advance guard was gaining ground and pushing into the enemy's position, but this left them exposed from the side, and just across the Fuji river were more Western forces under the command of Otani Yoshitsugu. Otani was supported from the rear by Kobayakawa Hideaki, who was positioned on Mount Matsuo.

In the months leading up to the battle, Tokugawa approached multiple daimyō from the Western Army and promised them land and pardon after the battle if they should switch sides. Kobayakawa was one of the daimyō Tokugawa approached, and he agreed to defect. Unfortunately, he did not keep to his word during the battle and instead remained neutral, not attacking either side. As the fighting dragged on, Ieyasu grew impatient and ordered musket fire on Kobayakawa as an ultimatum. Kobayakawa made his choice and defected to the Eastern Army. He ordered his 16,000 men to charge Otani's army, which you'd think would do a lot of good. except that Otani had a lot of men with a lot of dry gunpowder. His men simply turned their guns around and shot most of Kobayakawa's force dead.

Fortunately, the attack was not completely in vain. Otani was already engaged with several other Eastern armies, and Kobayakawa's army ended up being enough to overwhelm Otani's defenses. Seeing this, several more Western generals quickly defected mid-battle * to be specific: Wakisaka Yasuharu, Ogawa Suketada, Akaza Naoyasu, and Kutsuki Mototsuna , thus turning the tide in the Eastern Army's favor. Fukushima and Kobayakawa began to press deep into the Western Army's exposed right flank toward the center. Ishida sounded the retreat and retracted what was left of his army to Mount Nangu, where he was betrayed again by one of his generals. The Western Army fell apart, and the Battle of Sekigahara was won.

The Battle of Sekigahara was the culmination of the political turmoil of the Sengoku Period - both on a literal and metaphorical level. It's easy to draw parallels between the decades of warlords backstabbing and changing sides on one another and the events of Sekigahara, where so many forces changed sides - even in the middle of battle - that some had no idea who they were fighting for or against. Amusingly, both sides also had forces which didn't participate in the battle because they arrived too late. If each side had been backed by their full host, who knows how the battle would have turned out?

Tokugawa rounded up the fleeing generals and publicly executed Ishida Mitsunari (among others). The Toyotomi loyalists greatly lost their support and prestige and scattered. Immediately after the battle, Tokugawa redistributed all of the country's land, giving more important and wealthier territories to the daimyō he deemed more loyal to him. Some daimyō, including some from the Western Army, had their territory untouched others had virtually all their land taken away. Out of the many families/clans coming out of this battle, three would be noteworthy:

  • The Mori, widely agreed to be one of the biggest losers (having nominally led the Western Army apart from Ishida) had most of their Sengoku-era holdings seized. They would settle in Choshu, nursing grudges and plans of rebellion against the Tokugawa for centuries
  • The Shimazu of Satsuma, whose distance from the mainland gave them the opportunity to foster cultural, economic and social independence from Tokugawa control and
  • Descendants and retainers of the Chosokabe of Tosa, who would be displaced by the Tokugawa-loyalist Yamauchi clan and treated as second-class citizens.

Three hundred years later, Rōnin and other samurai from Choshu, Satsuma and Tosa would be largely responsible for the Meiji Restoration.

In 1603, at the age of 60, Tokugawa Ieyasu was appointed shogun by the Emperor, becoming the first shogun since the deposition of the Ashikaga in 1573. He had outlived all of the other great men of his time, and could finally rule a united Japan, unchallenged. The beginning of the Tokugawa shogunate marks the beginning of the Edo Period of Japanese history, named after the city of Edo, which Tokugawa made the new capital - you know it today as Tokyo. Most historians mark the end of the Sengoku Period here, but just for completion's sake.

Tokugawa Ieyasu abdicated in 1605, retiring soon after ascending to the shogunate, according to custom. He passed the rule down to his son (which also had the effect of securing a peaceful succession). Tokugawa just had one more matter to settle. He rounded up his troops one last time and marched on Osaka Castle in 1614. Osaka Castle was the home of Toyotomi Hideyori, Hideyoshi's rightful heir. Tokugawa laid siege to the castle until it burned to the ground in 1615, taking the last of the Toyotomi bloodline with it and thereby ending the last possible opposition to his rule, though notably, Tokugawa came into near death when a certain general under Hideyori, Sanada Yukimura, made a mad charge singlehandedly towards his camp and stepped a bit too close to deal the finishing blow to Tokugawa. Luckily for Tokugawa, Sanada's endurance reached his peak that after he declared that he's too tired to fight anymore and then either collapsed out of fatigue and died from his wounds, or Tokugawa's bodyguards came to the rescue and struck him down. Regardless of that, Tokugawa praised Sanada's burning warrior spirit and dubbed him Japan's #1 soldier.

Tokugawa himself died the next year (either of cancer or syphilis), leaving behind the beginnings of Japan's third, final, longest-ruling, and most powerful shogunate.


Sengoku Era

The daimyo Nobunaga Oda, came to the fore in the 1550s in Owari, in the present-day Aicih Prefecture of southeastern Honshu. He was ready to extend his power by 1560, but the Imagawa and Matsudaira clans had other ideas. So, as Nobunaga headed towards Kyoto with 1,800 men, he heard that an army of over 20,000 was marching out to meet him. Unperturbed, he devised a dummy army, setting up a row of soldiers' hats and banners along a lengthy skyline to give the impression of a waiting force of many thousands. Meanwhile, his army discreetly made its way around to approach his enemies in the rear at Okehazama. His surprise attack sowed complete and utter panic and brought him an improbable victory. 

Many of the defeated daimyo flocked to Nobunaga's banner. Among them was Motoyasu Matsudaira: born Takechiyo Matsudaira, he would later find lasting fame as Ieyasu Tokugawa (the name he gave himself in 1567). Also destined for great things was Hideyoshi Hashiba: he was now Nobunaga's sandal-bearer.

Opening fire

Though much reinforced by these new recruits, Nobunaga still faced enormous challenges - not least his rival, Shingen Takeda. A formidable warrior from the nearby province of Kai, Shingen had hopes of uniting honshu under his rule. But Nobunaga and Ieyasu were not to be deterred. They had set aside ancestral enmity to make common cause.

The inevitable collision with Shingen came in 1573, when his cavalry overran Ieyasu's army at Mikatagahara (Mikawa Proince). Shingen died soon after the encounter, but his son and successor, Kutsuyori was no less ambitious, and just as determined to dominate Japan.

When his much larger force met with Nobunaga's at Nagashino Castle, also in Mikawa Province, a repeat of the rout at Mikatagahara seemed likely. Instead, the impact of Katsuyori's cavalry charge was checked by the disciplined stand of Nobunaga's men, and they were cut down in their thousands by arqueusiers - men armed with muzzle-loaded firearms. Nagashino amounted to more than just a military triumph: symbolically, it marked Nobunaga out as a potential national leader. In hindsight, it was a victory, not just for Nobunaga, but also for modern ways of making war.

A Unified Japan

Nobunaga died in 1582, forced to commit seppuku (ritual suicidee) by one of his own generals, Mitsuhide Akechi, having allegedly insulted his mother. He was succeeded by his sandal-bearer, Hideyoshi Hashiba, who had risen in his master's trust to become his most valued general. True to Nobunaga, Hideyoshi abandoned the campaign he had been waging in the east and marched back to take on his lord's betrayer. Mitsuhide had the advantage at Yamazaki, in present-day Kyoto Prefecture, but, the night before the battle, Hideyoshi sent out small parties to harass his men from the rear, unsettling them. In the next day's fighting, firearms once more proved decisive.

Hideyoshi's authority did not go uncontested within the Oda camp. Opposition united behind Nobutaka, Nobunaga's third son. The rebels included Ieyasu Tokugawa. But Hideyoshi saw off the threat, defeating his enemies at Shizugatake, in the present-day Shiga Prefecture, in 1583. By 1585 he had secured his position as Japan's most powerful man: as regent to the emperor, he unified the country. He harboured ambitions of conquering China - and organized two invasions of Korea, although neither of these was ultimately to go as planned. Even so, by the time he died in 1598, Hideyoshi had brought order to Japan.

Ieyasu ascendant

Ieyasu Tokugawa had eventually made his peace with Hideyoshi, but he drew the line at respecting the succession of his son. Hideyori was only five, so was in no position to reign: fighting erupted over his regency. Hundreds of daimyo felt they had a stake in the outcome, but opposition coalesced around the figures of Ieyasu and Mitsunari Ishida, a loyal supporter of the Toyotomi. The former drew supporters from the east the latter had his power base in the west. The showdown came on 21 October 1600, at the battle of Sekigahara (present-day Gifu Prefecture): over 150,000 warriors were involved. The fighting took place over a wide area, with small warrior-groups engaging in a series of running skirmishes. It resulted in a smashing victory for Ieyasu's army. Essentially static, given the need for laborious reloading, Ieyasu's arquebusiers had been peripheral. More crucial had been divisions in the Toyotomi camp and the Tokugawa chief's back-channel diplomacy in the days preceding, which resulted in several key daimyo switching sides once fighting commenced. Ieyasu's victory was epoch-making, though unrest continued to simmer for several years. Only when the Toyotomi were finally cornered and destroyed at the siege of Osaka in 1615, could the wars of the Sengoku era be said to have reached their end.


Sengoku Jidai Clans - Which Daimyo Had A Serious Chance Of Becoming Shogun During The Sengoku Jidai Period Of Japan And Why Did They Have Such A Shot Quora / Together with andō morinari and ujiie naomoto (bokuzen), these individuals were known as the western mino group of three with yoshimichi as the leader.

Sengoku Jidai Clans - Which Daimyo Had A Serious Chance Of Becoming Shogun During The Sengoku Jidai Period Of Japan And Why Did They Have Such A Shot Quora / Together with andō morinari and ujiie naomoto (bokuzen), these individuals were known as the western mino group of three with yoshimichi as the leader.. The era of the warring states (戦国時代 sengoku jidai) was an extremely lengthy and bloody period in history where hundreds of individual shinobi clans fought in constant, bitter warfare. Important in a general me. Each clan starts with an army of 5.250 Fandom apps take your favorite fandoms with you and never miss a beat. Another, hosokawa akiuji, helped establish the ashikaga shogunate.

The date clan of mutsu province had connections to the uesugi clan and to echigo province. Each unit in the army may be a mini army unto itself with mixed arms. The oda clan were the rulers of owari prefecture as well as one of the clans that dominated the title of shogun. 1 history 1.1 gekokujō period 1.2 ōnin war 1.3 samurai—ninja conflicts 1.4 uchiha—senju blood feud 1.5 unificication period 2. Each clan starts with an army of 5.250

Sengoku Jidai Shadow Of The Shogun Pc Review Gamewatcher from images.gamewatcherstatic.com After the battle of okehazama, hideyoshi was awarded with land grants and became a daimyo in his own right. During this period before being defeated by the tokugawa clan, one of the most famous samurai was shimazu yoshihisa (島津義久). In 1527, sanemoto was born as the third son of tanemune, the sengoku daimyō of mutsu. The toyotomi clan was the second of the three unification clans, successor to the oda clan and predecessor to the tokugawa clan. The sengoku period (戦国時代, sengoku jidai?) or the warring states period in japanese history was a time of social upheaval, political intrigue, and nearly constant military conflict that lasted roughly from the middle of the 15th century to the beginning of the 17th century. The era of the warring states (戦国時代 sengoku jidai) was an extremely lengthy and bloody period in history where hundreds of individual shinobi clans fought in constant, bitter warfare. 1 history 1.1 gekokujō period 1.2 ōnin war 1.3 samurai—ninja conflicts 1.4 uchiha—senju blood feud 1.5 unificication period 2. Another, hosokawa akiuji, helped establish the ashikaga shogunate.

He came from satsuma, in southern kyushu.

Important in a general me. Each unit in the army may be a mini army unto itself with mixed arms. The era of the warring states (戦国時代 sengoku jidai) was an extremely lengthy and bloody period in history where hundreds of individual shinobi clans fought in constant, bitter warfare. Another video about a legendary daimyo from a clan that held a great power and reputation in the tohoku regionall footage from this video is from samurai war. Mitsuhide was selected from outside the oda clan to become a senior retainer, but, in the end, launched a dramatic coup d'état against nobunaga in the honnō temple incident that resulted in nobunaga's untimely demise in 1582. Each clan starts with an army of 5.250 Sengoku jidai wiki is a fandom lifestyle community. Ashikaga shogunate stays at 5 techpoints at start, and grows with the best clan in tech The mori clan was one of the clans of the sengoku jidai. In this video you can learn abo. The terrain and complex clan hierarchy meant armies were more retinues of retinues than strictly organised armies. Shogun 2 faction, see shimazu clan. Their only leader during the main sengoku jidai was oda nobunaga, the demon king.

Sengoku jidai wiki is a fandom lifestyle community. The nihonmatsu of mutsu province were descendants of the hatakeyama clan, and were ruled by yoshitsugu. The terrain and complex clan hierarchy meant armies were more retinues of retinues than strictly organised armies. In 1527, sanemoto was born as the third son of tanemune, the sengoku daimyō of mutsu. 1 description 1.1 grand campaign 2 initial information 2.1 sengoku jidai 2.2 1530 2.3 1550 2.4 1580 3 navigation based in the southern half of kyushu, the shimazu are in a position of relative security from which to.

An Overview Of The Sengoku Jidai The Sengoku Archives from thesengokuarchives.files.wordpress.com The nihonmatsu of mutsu province were descendants of the hatakeyama clan, and were ruled by yoshitsugu. The sengoku period (戦国時代, sengoku jidai?) or the warring states period in japanese history was a time of social upheaval, political intrigue, and nearly constant military conflict that lasted roughly from the middle of the 15th century to the beginning of the 17th century. This is a list of daimyōs from the sengoku period of japan During the sengoku jidai, the emperor officially the ruler of his nation and every samurai lord (daimyo. His childhood name was tokimunemaru. Special nations ( clans ) get 2.500 extra manpower per turn each province, every nation starts with 10.000 manpower, manpower increases 750 each province. The nihonmatsu clan was one of the several clans of japan. This clan controlled much of northeastern kyushu during sengoku jidai (bungo and buzen provinces, respectively).

Upon hearing this news, hashiba hideyoshi, nobunaga's most senior commander, swiftly.

Special nations ( clans ) get 2.500 extra manpower per turn each province, every nation starts with 10.000 manpower, manpower increases 750 each province. The nihonmatsu clan was one of the several clans of japan. The shimazu are one of seven playable clans in shogun: In fact, sorin was apparently so committed to christianity that he famously sent the first japanese mission, known as the tensho embassy, to visit the pope in rome. The ashikaga had a tight grip on the capital region surrounding kyoto, but their shogunate was one of the weaker in japanese history and held little authority over lands farther away. Hosokawa yoriharu, a hosokawa of the late kamakura period, fought for the ashikaga clan against the kamakura shogunate. The sengoku jidai is also known as the warring states period to english scholars, which is actually an almost literal translation.(1) while english japanese historians can agree on the name of the era, for some reason, they cannot agree on the years. In 1586, the date clan attacked the hatakeyama and yoshitsugu entered the battle. The sengoku period was initiated by the ōnin war in 1467 which collapsed the feudal system of japan under the ashikaga shogunate. In 1527, sanemoto was born as the third son of tanemune, the sengoku daimyō of mutsu. The mori clan was one of the clans of the sengoku jidai. Mitsuhide was selected from outside the oda clan to become a senior retainer, but, in the end, launched a dramatic coup d'état against nobunaga in the honnō temple incident that resulted in nobunaga's untimely demise in 1582. Their only leader during the main sengoku jidai was oda nobunaga, the demon king.

Important in a general me. The era of the warring states (戦国時代 sengoku jidai) was an extremely lengthy and bloody period in history where hundreds of individual shinobi clans fought in constant, bitter warfare. This is a list of daimyōs from the sengoku period of japan Ashikaga yoshisue, son of ashikaga yoshizane, was the first to take the name of hosokawa. The nihonmatsu clan was one of the several clans of japan.

Oda Clan Sengoku Jidai Wiki Fandom from static.wikia.nocookie.net The sengoku period (戦国時代, sengoku jidai?) or the warring states period in japanese history was a time of social upheaval, political intrigue, and nearly constant military conflict that lasted roughly from the middle of the 15th century to the beginning of the 17th century. Mitsuhide was selected from outside the oda clan to become a senior retainer, but, in the end, launched a dramatic coup d'état against nobunaga in the honnō temple incident that resulted in nobunaga's untimely demise in 1582. In 1527, sanemoto was born as the third son of tanemune, the sengoku daimyō of mutsu. Another video about a legendary daimyo from a clan that held a great power and reputation in the tohoku regionall footage from this video is from samurai war. This clan controlled much of northeastern kyushu during sengoku jidai (bungo and buzen provinces, respectively). He came from satsuma, in southern kyushu. His childhood name was tokimunemaru. But who and where are they today?

1 description 1.1 grand campaign 2 initial information 2.1 sengoku jidai 2.2 1530 2.3 1550 2.4 1580 3 navigation based in the southern half of kyushu, the shimazu are in a position of relative security from which to.

The sengoku period (戦国時代, sengoku jidai?) or the warring states period in japanese history was a time of social upheaval, political intrigue, and nearly constant military conflict that lasted roughly from the middle of the 15th century to the beginning of the 17th century. The mori clan was one of the clans of the sengoku jidai. Its name is a reference to the warring states period in ancient china, and it is sometimes called by that name in. He was a retainer of the saitō, the oda, and the toyotomi clans and the lord of sone castle in mino province. Important in a general me. The terrain and complex clan hierarchy meant armies were more retinues of retinues than strictly organised armies. Another, hosokawa akiuji, helped establish the ashikaga shogunate. During the sengoku jidai, the emperor officially the ruler of his nation and every samurai lord (daimyo. His first major battle in command of his clan was at yamazaki in 1582, fighting. Each unit in the army may be a mini army unto itself with mixed arms. Upon hearing this news, hashiba hideyoshi, nobunaga's most senior commander, swiftly. Another video about a legendary daimyo from a clan that held a great power and reputation in the tohoku regionall footage from this video is from samurai war. The era of the warring states (戦国時代 sengoku jidai) was an extremely lengthy and bloody period in history where hundreds of individual shinobi clans fought in constant, bitter warfare.

The era of the warring states (戦国時代 sengoku jidai) was an extremely lengthy and bloody period in history where hundreds of individual shinobi clans fought in constant, bitter warfare. Together with andō morinari and ujiie naomoto (bokuzen), these individuals were known as the western mino group of three with yoshimichi as the leader. The sengoku period was initiated by the ōnin war in 1467 which collapsed the feudal system of japan under the ashikaga shogunate. Sengoku jidai wiki is a fandom lifestyle community. However, he was killed by the enemy forces.

Source: images.squarespace-cdn.com

During this period before being defeated by the tokugawa clan, one of the most famous samurai was shimazu yoshihisa (島津義久). Ashikaga shogunate stays at 5 techpoints at start, and grows with the best clan in tech The sanada clan was one of several clans during the sengoku period. He was a retainer of the saitō, the oda, and the toyotomi clans and the lord of sone castle in mino province. The oda clan were the rulers of owari prefecture as well as one of the clans that dominated the title of shogun.

Upon hearing this news, hashiba hideyoshi, nobunaga's most senior commander, swiftly. Together with andō morinari and ujiie naomoto (bokuzen), these individuals were known as the western mino group of three with yoshimichi as the leader. Shogun 2 faction, see shimazu clan. Kyushu had a long tradition of producing strong traditional samurai. Sengoku jidai wiki is a fandom lifestyle community.

Source: store-images.microsoft.com

In this video you can learn abo. His childhood name was tokimunemaru. During this period before being defeated by the tokugawa clan, one of the most famous samurai was shimazu yoshihisa (島津義久). The nihonmatsu of mutsu province were descendants of the hatakeyama clan, and were ruled by yoshitsugu. Upon hearing this news, hashiba hideyoshi, nobunaga's most senior commander, swiftly.

Important in a general me. The sengoku jidai is also known as the warring states period to english scholars, which is actually an almost literal translation.(1) while english japanese historians can agree on the name of the era, for some reason, they cannot agree on the years. Together with andō morinari and ujiie naomoto (bokuzen), these individuals were known as the western mino group of three with yoshimichi as the leader. In 1527, sanemoto was born as the third son of tanemune, the sengoku daimyō of mutsu. The nihonmatsu of mutsu province were descendants of the hatakeyama clan, and were ruled by yoshitsugu.

Source: upload.wikimedia.org

Hosokawa yoriharu, a hosokawa of the late kamakura period, fought for the ashikaga clan against the kamakura shogunate. The date clan of mutsu province had connections to the uesugi clan and to echigo province. The shimazu are one of seven playable clans in shogun: The oda clan were the rulers of owari prefecture as well as one of the clans that dominated the title of shogun. He was a retainer of the saitō, the oda, and the toyotomi clans and the lord of sone castle in mino province.

In 1586, the date clan attacked the hatakeyama and yoshitsugu entered the battle. Another, hosokawa akiuji, helped establish the ashikaga shogunate. During this period before being defeated by the tokugawa clan, one of the most famous samurai was shimazu yoshihisa (島津義久). Mitsuhide was selected from outside the oda clan to become a senior retainer, but, in the end, launched a dramatic coup d'état against nobunaga in the honnō temple incident that resulted in nobunaga's untimely demise in 1582. The oda clan were the rulers of owari prefecture as well as one of the clans that dominated the title of shogun.

Source: upload.wikimedia.org

His first major battle in command of his clan was at yamazaki in 1582, fighting. Ashikaga yoshisue, son of ashikaga yoshizane, was the first to take the name of hosokawa. Important in a general me. After the battle of okehazama, hideyoshi was awarded with land grants and became a daimyo in his own right. In 1527, sanemoto was born as the third son of tanemune, the sengoku daimyō of mutsu.

Source: images.japan-experience.com

The oda clan were the rulers of owari prefecture as well as one of the clans that dominated the title of shogun. In 1586, the date clan attacked the hatakeyama and yoshitsugu entered the battle. Another video about a legendary daimyo from a clan that held a great power and reputation in the tohoku regionall footage from this video is from samurai war. Each unit in the army may be a mini army unto itself with mixed arms. Mitsuhide was selected from outside the oda clan to become a senior retainer, but, in the end, launched a dramatic coup d'état against nobunaga in the honnō temple incident that resulted in nobunaga's untimely demise in 1582.

During this period before being defeated by the tokugawa clan, one of the most famous samurai was shimazu yoshihisa (島津義久).

In this video you can learn abo.

/> Source: imageproxy.ifunny.co

Akechi mitsuhide served as a bushō and daimyō under oda nobunaga.

Source: upload.wikimedia.org

The sengoku jidai was a period of bloody civil war in feudal japan.

Source: images.japan-experience.com

In 1586, the date clan attacked the hatakeyama and yoshitsugu entered the battle.

Source: www.japancentric.com

After the battle of okehazama, hideyoshi was awarded with land grants and became a daimyo in his own right.

Another, hosokawa akiuji, helped establish the ashikaga shogunate.

Source: www.japancentric.com

Mon were around some centuries before the sengoku jidai.

Shogun 2 faction, see shimazu clan.

Another video about a legendary daimyo from a clan that held a great power and reputation in the tohoku regionall footage from this video is from samurai war.

During this period before being defeated by the tokugawa clan, one of the most famous samurai was shimazu yoshihisa (島津義久).

The sengoku jidai is also known as the warring states period to english scholars, which is actually an almost literal translation.(1) while english japanese historians can agree on the name of the era, for some reason, they cannot agree on the years.

Source: static.wikia.nocookie.net

He came from satsuma, in southern kyushu.

Source: tenkafubu608971038.files.wordpress.com

Fandom apps take your favorite fandoms with you and never miss a beat.

Important in a general me.

The sengoku jidai is also known as the warring states period to english scholars, which is actually an almost literal translation.(1) while english japanese historians can agree on the name of the era, for some reason, they cannot agree on the years.

Ashikaga shogunate stays at 5 techpoints at start, and grows with the best clan in tech

Its name is a reference to the warring states period in ancient china, and it is sometimes called by that name in.

In 1586, the date clan attacked the hatakeyama and yoshitsugu entered the battle.

Together with andō morinari and ujiie naomoto (bokuzen), these individuals were known as the western mino group of three with yoshimichi as the leader.

However, he was killed by the enemy forces.

Source: images.gog-statics.com

Another, hosokawa akiuji, helped establish the ashikaga shogunate.

After the battle of okehazama, hideyoshi was awarded with land grants and became a daimyo in his own right.

Source: sculptingpaintingandgaming.com

Important in a general me.


Christian Clans in Sengoku Jidai era?

But some Daimyo were openly Christian, Konish Yukinaga being the most famous example. He refused to commit harakiri because it is considered a suicide and he was beheaded after sekigahara.

They also made a big deal out of Christianity when Japan invaded Korea in 1592. They were serious about their faith.

Look to Kyushu in the South for the strongest christian clans/influence. So from a gaming point of view, Shimazu would be the clan of choice.

Shimazu Yoshihiro went as far as including a stylised christian cross on some of his banners

As far as I'm aware, it appears some "christian" daimyo didn't always actually convert but negotiated missionary access to their territories in exchange for guns and the like (the missionaries having varied success among the population). But of those that did convert, rather than forced conversion of all the people, it appeared to be only Daimyo and vassal households for political/military advantages - and equally there would be periodical expulsions of christians when territory was lost.

- e.g. Omura Sumitada and son (Yoshiaki) were both christian and largely remained in power due to being bankrolled by the Jesuits, but his grandson (Suminobu) rejected christianity when he came to power and went as far as persecuting christians in his domain.

Look to Kyushu in the South for the strongest christian clans/influence. So from a gaming point of view, Shimazu would be the clan of choice.

Shimazu Yoshihiro went as far as including a stylised christian cross on some of his banners

As far as I'm aware, it appears some "christian" daimyo didn't always actually convert but negotiated missionary access to their territories in exchange for guns and the like (the missionaries having varied success among the population). But of those that did convert, rather than forced conversion of all the people, it appeared to be only Daimyo and vassal households for political/military advantages - and equally there would be periodical expulsions of christians when territory was lost.

- e.g. Omura Sumitada and son (Yoshiaki) were both christian and largely remained in power due to being bankrolled by the Jesuits, but his grandson (Suminobu) rejected christianity when he came to power and went as far as persecuting christians in his domain.


Interesting. Since I'm doubting between taking Shimazu or Chosokabe, I might consider going Christianstyle with Shimazu then.

Wikipedia has a solid article on Christianity in Japan at this time.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kiri****an

In that article there's a list of Christian Diamyo. There are no Shimazu on that list. The Shimazu did have some of the earliest contact with Jesuit missionaries but they, from what Ive read, were never a "Christian' clan.

Also, the Shimazu mon/kamon is very likely not a Christian cross, but that mon was used later by underground Christians as a symbol. Some info here:
http://www.seiyaku.com/customs/crosses/kamon.html

From another site, "It has also been said to have been a Christian inspired seal, but plenty of historical records state the cross was used before Christianity was introduced to Japan."
http://koei.wikia.com/wiki/Shimazu

The Shimazu mon was created long before Christian proselytizers washed up on the shores of Tanegashima in 1543.

Their mon has nothing to do with Christianity and they were not a Christian clan.

But some Daimyo were openly Christian, Konish Yukinaga being the most famous example. He refused to commit harakiri because it is considered a suicide and he was beheaded after sekigahara.

They also made a big deal out of Christianity when Japan invaded Korea in 1592. They were serious about their faith.

The only "official" reaction by the Tokugawa shogunate towards Catholicism occurred after the Sengoku period, and only after some misunderstandings and suspisions of the shogunate towards requests to build a fortress by the Franciscans. Protestant Dutch and British also were less religiously-minded in their dealings: the Spanish and Portuguese tended to attach trading with religious belief, a factor that I believe caused many Japanese to convert for sake of access to trade benefits. All in all, people like Tokugawa Ieyasu weren't above using people for certain ends and cut the rope once they prove to be a liability. In other words, one day you'd support the Jesuits, the next you're banning them. This is how warlords gain and maintain power.

My inclination of daimyo and other lords' conversions are that they're largely for non-religious reasons. And a "Christian clan" would definitely be something noteworthy among scholars and historians. As for what seems to be a cross, its more likely a stylized Kanji character or the clan's mon. From what I could find and google, nothing refers Shimazu Yoshihiro with any Christians or Christianity, and doubled with the fact that the symbol has been in use before contact with Europeans, my assumption is that its not related.

My apologies, I should have included an example of an actual Christian clan.

The Otomo clan under the daimyo, Otomo Sorin, is a good example.

This clan controlled much of northeastern Kyushu during Sengoku Jidai (Bungo and Buzen provinces, respectively).

In fact, Sorin was apparently so committed to Christianity that he famously sent the first Japanese mission, known as the Tensho embassy, to visit the Pope in Rome. Three Japanese servants of Sorin met Pope Gregory in 1585 after a three year journey.

However, by the time Sorin's servants arrived back home much had changed. For starters, Sorin was dead, having passed away in 1587. Second, Oda Nobunaga, formerly the de facto ruler of Japan, had also died. In his place a former general of his, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, exercised supreme authority throughout Japan. Under Hideyoshi, Japan's tolerance of Christianity lessened, a drastic change from Nobunaga, who very much tolerated Christian proselytizing.

Moreover, the Otomo clan by 1590 had lost its independence, becoming a vassal of Hideyoshi.

A lot can change when your gone for 8 years visiting the Pope!

Here are some useful links, hope they help with your research:

The Shimazu mon was created long before Christian proselytizers washed up on the shores of Tanegashima in 1543.

Their mon has nothing to do with Christianity and they were not a Christian clan.

Correct, which is why I specified Yoshihiro's use of the christian cross (crossbeam intersecting upright at "shoulder" height), NOT the symmetrical Shimazu mon that has nothing to do with christianity. Also, I totally agree that none of the playable clans were christian, merely prominent individuals in clans and mass conversions among the working caste (probably because they were sick of war and liked the promises of eternal peace), so I'm sorry if I gave a different impression in my earlier post.

Tokugawa Ieasyu was not christian, and actually resented christianity for its influence on the people (allegiance to Rome instead of to Shogun and preaching peace to the people in time of war when he needed everybody in his domain to be motivated behind his cause). That said, while he did not repeal the anti-christian edict upon gaining power after the death of Taikosama, he suitably fudged his stance insofar that missionaries reported "the period of persecution has ended" and a resurgence of missionary activity resumed for a while.

The enemy of my enemy is my friend. With the arrival of protestants in Japan, the christian monopoly of the Jesuits was broken, and Ieasyu seized on the opportunity to exploit this rift (the Jesuits had been lying about the unity of christians in Europe and that was blown apart when the protestants arrived, as hostilities between the two soon became obvious).

The irony is that whilst the southern clans had the early advantage with their collaboration with the Jesuits in exchange for weapons trades, a degree of complacency may have occured, as it took the buddhist monks on the mainland to knuckle down and develop a comprehensively disciplined approach on how to maximise the killing capacity of matchlocks. Ieasyu would've observed his ally's tactics at the battle of Nagashino - a prime example of such learnings in action.

Pike & Shot type formations had become quite commonplace by the time of Sekigahara, and Tokugawa Ieasyu certainly did not need European imports to enable him to field gunners, as he had his fair share of weaponsmiths making them. but as they say, "every little helps", so he'd snap up any guns he could purchase at such a critical stage of the war.

That all having been said, christian Daimyo were scattered throughout Japan by the time of Sekigahara and were by no means united together. According to Jesuit records from the time, there were "more than 14 christian Daimyo" before Sekigahara that had actually been baptized (and more than half of them actually fought for Ieasyu). After the battle of Sekigahara, the number of christian Daimyo had been reduced to eight.

Jesuit records mention the following as christian.
Oda Hidenobu
Mori Takamasa
Konishi Yukinaga
Ito Suketaka
Ukita Hideie
Akashi Morishige
Kuroda Nagamasa
Kuroda Yo****aka . Y.o.s.h.i.t.a.k.a.
So Yoshimoto (records also say he turned apostate)
Omura Yoshiaki
Kobayakawa Hidekane
Tsutsui Sadatsugu
Tsugaru Nobuhira
Hachisuka Iemasa
Arima Harunobu
Kobayakawa Hidekane

The thing to remember is that Sengoku Japan was not split on religious grounds, but more on family connections, so you could have a devout christian and an equally devout anti-christian fighting as allies so long as they shared the same political objective.

Also, some Daimyo would switch religion for political expediency, so there really is no need to belong to any one specific clan if one wishes to utilise christian traders, but it is undeniable that the clans of the south were the first to experience Jesuit influence . In game, the playable southern clan is the Shimazu, which is why I singled them out in my earlier post.

Yeah, that's because I didn't realise I would have to.

Despite the strokes being made the same way (top to bottom & left to right), given the precision of kanji, the cross-stroke must nevertheless intersect the upright in the middle. but I do have a theory - I think Yoshihiro was having his cake and eating it, so to speak. . or supreme diplomacy if you prefer.

There may very well be a dichotomy regarding the source of Yoshihiro's personal banner (not the generic Shimazu mon) that could explain why it's possible for both positions to be equally right and equally wrong. I think he deliberately turned the kanji into a christian cross to motivate his christian Ashigaru . As the "Lord of Satsuma and Ôsumi", these were regions from which he raised his levy troops, and the lower castes of these areas had converted to christianity on a massive scale - so his christian Ashigaru would see it as a stylised christian symbol under which to fight, but to non-christians it was merely a stylised kanji (although I can't find any reason why he would have "10" on his banner).

Don't get me wrong, I'm hardly going to lose sleep over whether Yoshihiro was or wasn't christian. Incidentally, The Jesuits did not mention Yoshihiro in their list of christian Daimyo, so this does suggest that as an individual, he was not a christian irrespective of the beliefs of the majority of commoners in his domain.

Despite all I've said, I do find it by-and-large of little relevance as sectarianism was not the basis for the warring clans. After all, how does one define a "christian" or "non-christian" clan?

- If the Daimyo converts but his people do not, is that a christian clan or a non-christian clan?

- Equally, if the people convert but the Daimyo does not, is that a christian or non-christian clan?

The clans never saw themselves in terms of christian or non-christian. this is an anachronistic simplification by western observers. But the Daimyo had the power to encourage or suppress beliefs based upon his own personal leanings and political expediencies.

Yeah, that's because I didn't realise I would have to.

Despite the strokes being made the same way (top to bottom & left to right), given the precision of kanji, the cross-stroke must nevertheless intersect the upright in the middle. but I do have a theory - I think Yoshihiro was having his cake and eating it, so to speak. . or supreme diplomacy if you prefer.

There may very well be a dichotomy regarding the source of Yoshihiro's personal banner (not the generic Shimazu mon) that could explain why it's possible for both positions to be equally right and equally wrong. I think he deliberately turned the kanji into a christian cross to motivate his christian Ashigaru . As the "Lord of Satsuma and Ôsumi", these were regions from which he raised his levy troops, and the lower castes of these areas had converted to christianity on a massive scale - so his christian Ashigaru would see it as a stylised christian symbol under which to fight, but to non-christians it was merely a stylised kanji (although I can't find any reason why he would have "10" on his banner).

Don't get me wrong, I'm hardly going to lose sleep over whether Yoshihiro was or wasn't christian. Incidentally, The Jesuits did not mention Yoshihiro in their list of christian Daimyo, so this does suggest that as an individual, he was not a christian irrespective of the beliefs of the majority of commoners in his domain.

Despite all I've said, I do find it by-and-large of little relevance as sectarianism was not the basis for the warring clans. After all, how does one define a "christian" or "non-christian" clan?

- If the Daimyo converts but his people do not, is that a christian clan or a non-christian clan?

- Equally, if the people convert but the Daimyo does not, is that a christian or non-christian clan?

The clans never saw themselves in terms of christian or non-christian. this is an anachronistic simplification by western observers. But the Daimyo had the power to encourage or suppress beliefs based upon his own personal leanings and political expediencies.

Why are we still discussing this? The Shimazu were not a Christian clan, that includes Shimazu Yoshihiro. His personal banner that you refer to is Japanese and has nothing to do with the Christian cross.

I'm sorry, I seem to have missed the memo that your opinion ranks above all others - repeating the same thing over and over doesn't miraculously make it right.

We can happily agree to disagree on good terms, but there is as strong a logical basis to extrapolate my explanation of Yoshihiro's personal banner to anything else put forward so far (unless you mean the kanji calligrapher was extremely drunk and sloppy when he painted Yoshihiro's banner, but i find that hard to believe myself).

My earlier posts should by now be clear enough when taken in their entirety, so there shouldn't be any need for me to comment further in this regard.

Not so fast there chief. I posted a link that already made reference to the circle Shimazu mon being a stylization of the kanji for "10" which also would explain Yoshihiro's banner being the kanji for "10." And its not drunken calligraphy - take a look at this link, scroll to the bottom of the page. Typically the written "ju" has a longer vertical stroke, making its calligraphy form less a plus sign and more like a cross.

So, I think theres actually more evidence pointing to this being "10" than your assumption (albeit well thought out and written) that its a stylized Christian cross.

I rest my case and head to the sake bar.

Arghhhh . ok Occam's razor folks.

1. Were the Shimazu as a clan Christian? No.

2. Has anyone in this thread identified any leading Shimazu as being individually Christian? No. (this includes guess who, Yoshihiro)

3. Is the Shimazu clan mon a Christian cross? No. From what Ive seen on the web and from what has been posted here it seems almost absolutely certain that the Shimazu clan mon is not a Christian cross. The mon predates the arrival of the Portuguese. One source on the web suggests that the Shimazu clan mon is a stylization of a horse bridal or more likely a stylization of the kanji for "10."

4. What is Yoshihiro's banner? Well, lets think. We have little to no reason to associate him with Christianity. We have a source that suggests that the clan mon represents "10." Yoshihiro's banner certainly looks like the kanji character for "10." Does that same character mean "cross" (not Christian cross)? I have no idea.

So where does this leave us? Well until Stephen Turnbull turns up and posts I bet we'll never know. Hell it may well be a Christian cross, but given what we do know which is the most simple and likely answer? It aint a Christian cross.

In 1600, Christianity seemed to have the necessary conditions to become a a major religion in Japan.

Apart from being professed by about 300,000 individuals, amongst whom were to be found a considerable number of nobles, at the time there were at least fourteen daimyõ who had been baptised: Konishi Yoshiaki, Arima Harunobu, Kuroda Yoshikata, Itõ Suketaka, Mõri Takamasa, Kobayakawa Hidekane, Sõ Yoshimoto, Oda Hidenobu, Tsutui Sadatsugu, Hachisuka Iemasa, Tsugaru Nobushira, Kyõgoku Takatomo, Gamõ Hideyuki.

Their relations with the Church and with the Gospel, as well as their political weight were not unifirm, but at this point in time all of them supported the missionaries´activities or were, at least, figures who inspired optimistic expectations that could be realised if the political scenario did not change and if the Church managed to increase the number of clergymen in the Japanese archipelago.

The Jesuits also had the support of the Governor of Sakai, who was one of Konoshi Yukinaga´s brothers, and of the Governor of Myako, Maeda Gen´i, whose children were Christians.

Thre were also other important Christians in the country, who were banished for the time being, but who could possibly regain their influence, as was the case of Hosokawa Tadaoki, daimyõ of Tango Tadaoki was not Christian, but his wife Graça Hosokawa was a devout Christian who had been baptised in 1587 and had promoted the baptism of her sons, Hosokawa Tadatoshi and Hosokawa Tatsukata in 1595.

In the preceding year, Hosokawa Okimoto, Tadaoki´s brother, had likewise been baptised, owing to which the propagation of Christianity in this province seemed very possible, at least in medium term.

Finally, apart from the direct support of the Christian lords, at the time, the missionaries´activities were clearly supported by Ukita Hideie, one of the regents of the Empire, and two the most powerful daymiõ had also shown themselves to be tolerant. Mori Terumoto had even permitted the establishment of residences in his dominions, including in his capital, Hiroshima, and although Tokugawa Yeyasu did not have missionaries in his provinces, " the fathers visit him in much the same way as they used to earlier with Nobunaga"

A one can observe from the map 1, these daimyõ ( baptised, supporters or at least "encouraging") were scattered throughout the territory, for which reason, in medium term, their territories had the potential to become centres for the propagation of Christianity.

Thus, it seems that the idea with which J.F.Moran concludes his study on Valignano, where he states that Christianity could have succeeded in Japan if a Christian lord had become the lord of the tenka, does make sense. Perhaps it would have sufficed that the Empire not fall into the hands of a government that was anti-Christian, for the missionaries to have had the opportunity to further develop the work they were carrying out with such remarkable success.
As has been suggested by Moran, it was at precisely this stage the Christianity had its great opportunity to transform itself into a national phenomenon, especially by means of Konishi Yukinaga´s efforts.

However, this extremely propitious scenario only lasted a short while as with Togukawa Yeasu´s victory at the battle of Sekigahara the Japanese Empire came definitly under the control od a sole Lord and the Church lost the liberty it had enjoyed during the past two years.


Contents

During this period, although the Emperor of Japan was officially the ruler of his nation and every lord swore loyalty to him, he was largely a marginalized, ceremonial, and religious figure who delegated power to the shōgun, a noble who was roughly equivalent to a general. In the years preceding this era, the shogunate gradually lost influence and control over the daimyōs (local lords). Although the Ashikaga shogunate had retained the structure of the Kamakura shogunate and instituted a warrior government based on the same socio-economic rights and obligations established by the Hōjō with the Jōei Code in 1232, [ clarification needed ] it failed to win the loyalty of many daimyō, especially those whose domains were far from the capital, Kyoto. Many of these lords began to fight uncontrollably with each other for control over land and influence over the shogunate. As trade with Ming China grew, the economy developed, and the use of money became widespread as markets and commercial cities appeared. Combined with developments in agriculture and small-scale trading, this led to the desire for greater local autonomy throughout all levels of the social hierarchy. As early as the beginning of the 15th century, the suffering caused by earthquakes and famines often served to trigger armed uprisings by farmers weary of debt and taxes.

The Ōnin War (1467–1477), a conflict rooted in economic distress and brought on by a dispute over shogunal succession, is generally regarded as the onset of the Sengoku period. The "eastern" army of the Hosokawa family and its allies clashed with the "western" army of the Yamana. Fighting in and around Kyoto lasted for nearly 11 years, leaving the city almost completely destroyed. The conflict in Kyoto then spread to outlying provinces. [1] [4]

The period culminated with a series of three warlords – Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and Tokugawa Ieyasu – who gradually unified Japan. After Tokugawa Ieyasu's final victory at the siege of Osaka in 1615, Japan settled down into over two-hundred years of peace under the Tokugawa shogunate.

The Ōnin War in 1467 is usually considered the starting point of the Sengoku period. There are several events which could be considered the end of it: Nobunaga's entry to Kyoto (1568) [5] or abolition of the Muromachi shogunate (1573), [6] the siege of Odawara (1590), the Battle of Sekigahara (1600), the establishment of the Tokugawa Shogunate (1603), or the siege of Osaka (1615). [ citation needed ]

Time Event
1467 Beginning of Ōnin War
1477 End of Ōnin War
1488 The Kaga Rebellion
1493 Hosokawa Masamoto succeeds in the Coup of Meio
Hōjō Sōun seizes Izu Province
1507 Beginning of Ryo Hosokawa War (the succession dispute in the Hosokawa family)
1520 Hosokawa Takakuni defeats Hosokawa Sumimoto
1523 China suspends all trade relations with Japan due to the conflict
1531 Hosokawa Harumoto defeats Hosokawa Takakuni
1535 Battle of Idano The forces of the Matsudaira defeat the rebel Masatoyo
1543 The Portuguese land on Tanegashima, becoming the first Europeans to arrive in Japan, and introduce the arquebus into Japanese warfare
1549 Miyoshi Nagayoshi betrays Hosokawa Harumoto
Japan officially ends its recognition of China's regional hegemony and cancel any further tribute missions
1551 Tainei-ji incident: Sue Harukata betrays Ōuchi Yoshitaka, taking control of western Honshu
1554 The tripartite pact among Takeda, Hōjō and Imagawa is signed
1555 Battle of Itsukushima: Mōri Motonari defeats Sue Harukata and goes on to supplant the Ōuchi as the foremost daimyo of western Honshu
1560 Battle of Okehazama: The outnumbered Oda Nobunaga defeats and kills Imagawa Yoshimoto in a surprise attack
1568 Oda Nobunaga marches toward Kyoto forcing Matsunaga Danjo Hisahide to relinquish control of the city
1570 Beginning of Ishiyama Hongan-ji War
1571 Nagasaki is established as trade port for Portuguese merchants, with authorization of daimyo Õmura Sumitada
1573 The end of Ashikaga shogunate
1575 Battle of Nagashino: Oda Nobunaga decisively defeats the Takeda cavalry with innovative arquebus tactics
1577 Siege of Shigisan: Oda Nobunaga defeats Matsunaga Danjo Hisahide
1580 End of Ishiyama Hongan-ji War
1582 Akechi Mitsuhide assassinates Oda Nobunaga (Honnō-ji Incident) Hashiba Hideyoshi defeats Akechi at the Battle of Yamazaki
1585 Hashiba Hideyoshi is granted title of Kampaku, establishing his predominant authority he is granted the surname Toyotomi a year after.
1590 Siege of Odawara: Toyotomi Hideyoshi defeats the Hōjō clan, unifying Japan under his rule
1592 First invasion of Korea
1597 Second invasion of Korea
1598 Toyotomi Hideyoshi dies
1600 Battle of Sekigahara: The Eastern Army under Tokugawa Ieyasu defeats the Western Army of Toyotomi loyalists
1603 The establishment of the Tokugawa shogunate
1614 Catholicism is officially banned and all missionaries are ordered to leave the country
1615 Siege of Osaka: The last of the Toyotomi opposition to the Tokugawa shogunate is stamped out

The upheaval resulted in the further weakening of central authority, and throughout Japan, regional lords, called daimyōs, rose to fill the vacuum. In the course of this power shift, well-established clans such as the Takeda and the Imagawa, who had ruled under the authority of both the Kamakura and Muromachi bakufu, were able to expand their spheres of influence. There were many, however, whose positions eroded and were eventually usurped by more capable underlings. This phenomenon of social meritocracy, in which capable subordinates rejected the status quo and forcefully overthrew an emancipated aristocracy, became known as gekokujō ( 下克上 ) , which means "low conquers high". [1]

One of the earliest instances of this was Hōjō Sōun, who rose from relatively humble origins and eventually seized power in Izu Province in 1493. Building on the accomplishments of Sōun, the Hōjō clan remained a major power in the Kantō region until its subjugation by Toyotomi Hideyoshi late in the Sengoku period. Other notable examples include the supplanting of the Hosokawa clan by the Miyoshi, the Toki by the Saitō, and the Shiba clan by the Oda clan, which was in turn replaced by its underling, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, a son of a peasant with no family name.

Well-organized religious groups also gained political power at this time by uniting farmers in resistance and rebellion against the rule of the daimyōs. The monks of the Buddhist True Pure Land sect formed numerous Ikkō-ikki, the most successful of which, in Kaga Province, remained independent for nearly 100 years.

After nearly a century of political instability and warfare, Japan was on the verge of unification by Oda Nobunaga, who had emerged from obscurity in the province of Owari (present-day Aichi Prefecture) to dominate central Japan. In 1582, while in Kyoto at the temple of Honnō-ji, Oda Nobunaga committed seppuku during an invasion of the temple led by one of his generals, Akechi Mitsuhide, in order to assassinate Oda. This allowed Toyotomi Hideyoshi the opportunity to establish himself as Oda's successor after rising through the ranks from ashigaru (footsoldier) to become one of Oda's most trusted generals. Toyotomi eventually consolidated his control over the remaining daimyōs but ruled as Kampaku (Imperial Regent) as his common birth excluded him from the title of Sei-i Taishōgun. During his short reign as Kampaku, Toyotomi attempted two invasions of Korea. The first attempt, spanning from 1592 to 1596, was initially successful but suffered setbacks from the Joseon Navy and ended in a stalemate. The second attempt began in 1597 but was less successful as the Koreans, especially their navy, led by Admiral Yi Sun-Sin, were prepared from their first encounter. In 1598, Toyotomi called for retreat from Korea prior to his death.

Without leaving a capable successor, the country was once again thrust into political turmoil, and Tokugawa Ieyasu took advantage of the opportunity. [2]

On his deathbed, Toyotomi appointed a group of the most powerful lords in Japan—Tokugawa, Maeda Toshiie, Ukita Hideie, Uesugi Kagekatsu, and Mōri Terumoto—to govern as the Council of Five Regents until his infant son, Hideyori, came of age. An uneasy peace lasted until the death of Maeda in 1599. Thereafter a number of high-ranking figures, notably Ishida Mitsunari, accused Tokugawa of disloyalty to the Toyotomi regime.

This precipitated a crisis that led to the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600, during which Tokugawa and his allies, who controlled the east of the country, defeated the anti-Tokugawa forces, which had control of the west. Generally regarded as the last major conflict of the Sengoku period, Tokugawa's victory at Sekigahara effectively marked the end of the Toyotomi regime, the last remnants of which were finally destroyed in the siege of Osaka in 1615.


Why did the Sengoku period start?

Explore more on it. Keeping this in consideration, how did the Sengoku period start?

The Sengoku Period (Sengoku Jidai, 1467-1568 CE), also known as the Warring States Period, was a turbulent and violent period of Japanese history when rival warlords or daimyo fought bitterly for control of Japan. The beginning of the Sengoku period witnessed the Onin War (1467-1477 CE) which destroyed Heiankyo.

Subsequently, question is, when did the Sengoku period start and end? The Warring States period (Sengoku jidai) lasted for the century from 1467 to 1567 although the wars and confusion of the age were not finally ended until the creation of the Tokugawa shogunate in 1603. The name is drawn from a similar period of civil war in China.

Similarly, you may ask, when did the Sengoku period start?

. Sengoku Jidai) or Warring States period in Japanese history was a time of social upheaval, political intrigue, and nearly constant military conflict that lasted roughly from the middle of the 15th century to the beginning of the 17th century.

How did the Muromachi period get its name?

Muromachi period, also called Ashikaga Period, in Japanese history, period of the Ashikaga Shogunate (1338&ndash1573). It was named for a district in Kyōto, where the first Ashikaga shogun, Takauji, established his administrative headquarters.


What exactly happened during the Japanese Sengoku period?

I've got a fairly good understanding of Japanese history from around 300 BCE to around 1400 CE. However, I've really struggled to find a good online source of information regarding the Warring States period - Wikipedia is useless and nothing else seems to cite any sources.

So, what exactly did the conflict involve? Why did it start? Who were the major players? And what effect did it have on Japanese history as a broader entity? Thanks in advance.

It's understandable that you're confused about the Sengoku Jidai (Warring States Period), as the term covers about 200 years of history during which there were many changes and developments within Japan.

The term 'Sengoku Jidai' doesn't refer to one war or conflict in particular, but rather a long period where regional wars and strife were very common and the central authority of the Shogun was weak to the point of complete impotence. The traditional start date/event of the Sengoku is the Onin War (1467-1477). This was an inter-clan war between the two dominant clans of the time, the Yamana and the Hosokawa, essentially a power struggle over who would be the Shogunate's puppeteer. The 10 year conflict led to protracted famine and violence across much of Japan, and completely destroyed the ability of the Shogunate the exert any authority over the rest of Japan. The two large clans were also broken as vassal clans and sub-clans rebelled to try to achieve independence and/or greater power. However, many would argue that there were more important long-term causes, particularly the increasing independence of the regional governors that the Shogun appointed. As they established local power bases, they had less reason to remain subservient to the Shogun.

Both this and the Onin War led to climate of violence and opportunism - Samurai clans would take any chance to attack a weakened clan if they thought they would gain land or power, even if it meant backstabbing a former ally. It was chaotic but not completely anarchic - traditional societal structures such as feudalism still remained firmly in place and clans still paid lip-service to the Shogun (if nothing more).

In keeping with the spirit of the time, major players were constantly changing. The dominant power structures were the Samurai clans, but the clans which were dominant was constantly changing. Aside from these, the other notable power were radical Buddhist sects such as the Ikko-Ikki (translates as roughly 'single-minded league'). These groups amassed support through a kind of religious populism, and were occasionally able to challenge the clans for local dominance. Near the end of the Sengoku Jidai, the Oda clan (under Oda Nobunaga) became powerful and was able to unite a large portion of Japan under a single rule. Instability and violence did continue for some time, but eventually the Tokugawa clan (under Tokugawa Ieyasu) inherited the Oda clan's superiority and was able to form the Tokugawa Shogunate, a stable source of central authority which lasted for 200 years. This definitively brought the Sengoku Jidai to an end.

The legacy of the period is hard to pin down due to its length and the many important events that occurred within it, such as the first contact between Japan and the West. Probably the most important consequence of the period on wider Japanese history was the rise of a deeply conservative Shogunate which put Japan into isolation (Sakoku), which ultimately defined the role of Japan in world affairs in the 19th and 20th century.

Sources: a good portion of this comes from the excellent ɺ Short History of Japan' podcast on Itunes. The podcaster gives a very clear narrative of the Sengoku Jidai which approaches it from several angles and gives good context. My personal experience has been that once you have a basic narrative of the period, other sources of information (such as Wikipedia) become easier to interpret.


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