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12 June 1944

12 June 1944



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12 June 1944

War at Sea

German submarine U-490 sunk with all hands off the Azores

Western Front

All of the Allied beachheads in Normandy link up, creating a single 50 mile front

China

Mao Tse-tung announces that the communists will support Chiang Kai-shek in the fight against Japan



Japan surrenders June 12,1944

I don't think it was against the character of the Emperor, just beyond his power. It wasn't until the cabinet was deadlocked and he had the Prime Minister on his side that he was able to effect a surrender.

Perhaps a better POD would be for the US to accept Japan's earlier overtures. But even still, I don't see Japan holding onto any more territory, other than the Kuriles. It's hard to imagine Sakhalin being left to them, given our alliance with the Soviets.

Chengar Qordath

Brilliantlight

I don't think it was against the character of the Emperor, just beyond his power. It wasn't until the cabinet was deadlocked and he had the Prime Minister on his side that he was able to effect a surrender.

Perhaps a better POD would be for the US to accept Japan's earlier overtures. But even still, I don't see Japan holding onto any more territory, other than the Kuriles. It's hard to imagine Sakhalin being left to them, given our alliance with the Soviets.

Agrippa

Brilliantlight

Colossus

Actually, there was a large scale invasion of southern France. Operation Dragoon was the Allied invasion of Southern France between Toulon and Cannes on 15th August 1944. The operation was originally, and for most of the planning stage, known as "Anvil".

I agree, troops trained for the Pacific theater would not need 12 months to retrain on how to fight in the flat fields and farm pastures of France.

Could we possible see Patton standing victorious over the remains of the Reichstag weeks before the Soviets get to Berlin?

I'd agree with this scenario. As has been pointed out, it wouldn't take 12 months to get the Pacific veterans into combat in Europe. They'd take about three months, so we're talking December 1944. Ironically enough, they'd probably be first significant body of troops used to counter the German attack through the Ardennes, making the Battle of the Bulge even more pointless for the Germans.

Another plus is logisitics & supplies. Thanks to no more Pacific comflict, everything, more or less, could go to Europe. Thus the Western Allies could continue with their offensives well into 1945 without having to regroup & consolidate like they had to after Lorraine & Market-Garden.

As a result of all this, I'd say Patton is probably in Berlin by early March. In fact most of Germany falls to the Americans & British before the Russians can push deep into Germany as per OTL. Needless to say the war in Europe is over a few months earlier.


June 12, 1944 – Anonymous Boy

A Jewish boy kept a diary in the Lodz Ghetto during the spring and summer of 1944. He didn’t identify himself by name in any of the entries, so we can only refer to him as “Anonymous”. We can make some judgments about his circumstances, though, based on available clues. For example, he wrote in the margins and on the blank pages of a published book, rather than in a notebook designed to be used as a diary. This is proof of the scarcity that people experienced in the ghetto. Basic necessities, such as paper for writing, were in such short supply that this writer had to improvise in order to be able to record his thoughts and experiences. This also means that the diary was important to the writer, given the fact that that he continued to write in spite of the difficulties. This writer also recorded his diary in four languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Polish, and English. This probably indicates that he had been well educated prior to the German occupation. In any case, his account gives us insight into the thoughts and feelings of one young man who suffered persecution at the hands of the Nazis for the sole reason that he was a Jew.

MAINTAINING A JEWISH IDENTITY

On June 12th, 1944, the writer revealed in his diary that he understood the role that being Jewish played in his situation. He wrote, “I suffer terribly but I still dream of a better future, of a more beautiful life, free and humane. I dream also of being able to tell the world of my suffering, at least as much as possible. In fact I should call it our suffering. For never before has suffering been felt more collectively as it is by us in the ghetto. After fantasizing of writing in various languages I return to my own language, to Yiddish, our charming mother tongue, because only in Yiddish can I hope to express my true inner self, directly and without contriving.”

“I suffer terribly but I still dream of a better future, of a more beautiful life, free and humane.”

This anonymous writer was probably aware that Nazi oppression affected others in addition to Jews. He may have been aware of the persecution of people with mental, physical, or emotional handicaps. He probably knew about attacks against political opponents, religious dissenters, ethnic Poles, etc. He also knew, however, that Jews occupied a unique place in the Nazi imagination. They were not targeted for destruction because of what they could or could not do. They were not targeted because of what they believed or because of where they lived. They were targeted for destruction simply because they were, by the definition of the Nazis, born Jewish. That is why he recognized that the suffering in the ghetto was communal rather than individual. It is also likely why his response was to write in Yiddish – to reaffirm the value of his identity as a member of the Jewish people.

Learn more about the activities of some of the other young people in the Lodz Ghetto .


On This Day - June 12, 1944. Allied Forces at Normandy

Jeeps of the 261st Amphibious Medical Battalion's A-Company race across Utah Beach to deliver front line casualties to the waiting Landing Ship Tank USS-134 for transport to hospitals in Great Britain.

Shout out to the community at r/warshipporn and r/navy for the interesting discussion helping to identify the Ensign flags.

My dad served on an LST. They rolled like crazy in the open ocean because of the flat bottoms.

If you don't mind me asking, how old are you?

Wow, that's an amazingly impressive photo!

woah. one on the front. one on the back.

There seems to be a sense of calm among the men. There they are at D-Day+6, the things they must have seen at this point I wouldn't want to imagine.

By this point, the beach heads stretching from Utah to Sword were secure and the Allied forces began their big push into France. It makes sense for the LST's to hang back and carry the wounded.

The Battle of Bloody Gulch took place near Hill 69 (U.S. Army designation) approximately 1 mile (1.6 km) southwest of Carentan in Normandy, France on June 13, 1944, between elements of the German 17th SS Panzergrenadier Division and 6th Fallschirmjäger Regiment, and the American 501st, 502nd and 506th, Parachute Infantry Regiments (PIR) of the U.S. 101st Airborne Division, reinforced by elements of the U.S. 2nd Armored Division.

Parent commenter can toggle ^NSFW or ^delete . Will also delete on comment score of -1 or less. | FAQs | ^Mods | Call ^Me

Also, with the exception of the rear Jump Jeep it appears the men are loading fatalities. A somber mood indeed.

Would that much of the hull really have been painted bright red like that? I would have thought that when the LST was empty and floating a good portion of the red would be visible above the water line, and that would make it an obvious target.

Uncolorized original, possibly the source used. As you can see it had a large and clear waterline marking. Presumably red.

That said not all LST's were painted like that, some were camoɽ out and such aswell. Most of the ones used in Normandy such as the one pictured were simply mass produced and shoved into service. They didn't care too much about bright colors and such since they were part of a MASSIVE fleet.

I can't find a higher rez version of this image, but this sort of shows you the scale of what they were involved in.


June 4th, 1979 is a Monday. It is the 155th day of the year, and in the 23rd week of the year (assuming each week starts on a Monday), or the 2nd quarter of the year. There are 30 days in this month. 1979 is not a leap year, so there are 365 days in this year. The short form for this date used in the United States is 6/4/1979, and almost everywhere else in the world it's 4/6/1979.

This site provides an online date calculator to help you find the difference in the number of days between any two calendar dates. Simply enter the start and end date to calculate the duration of any event. You can also use this tool to determine how many days have passed since your birthday, or measure the amount of time until your baby's due date. The calculations use the Gregorian calendar, which was created in 1582 and later adopted in 1752 by Britain and the eastern part of what is now the United States. For best results, use dates after 1752 or verify any data if you are doing genealogy research. Historical calendars have many variations, including the ancient Roman calendar and the Julian calendar. Leap years are used to match the calendar year with the astronomical year. If you're trying to figure out the date that occurs in X days from today, switch to the Days From Now calculator instead.


Japan surrenders June 12,1944

Yeah, I agree. As it was they had to do it anyway a year later in 1945.

Brilliantlight

The thing is, though, why does Japan surrender in 1944, regardless whether it's the decision of the Emperor's or Cabinet? I don't have a problem with such orders being obeyed, it's just the pretext for surrender.

Brilliantlight

Well the USA may offer, but considering the Germans do better in this TL, why should the Japanese accept?

Brilliantlight

Actually I don't disagree with this, but for Japan to surrender I think one of two things must happen. Either the terms that the Americans offer are very favourable, which will merely act against FDR & co at the next elections, if the FDR Administration makes it that far (& FDR would know this so he wouldn't go through with the offer), or Japan suffers far greater defeats in 1944 than in the OTL. You could add to this a far larger bombing campaign of Japan as well starting in early 1944. I think this second AH scenario is the one to pursue for an earlier Japanese surrender.

Brilliantlight

Well that maybe possible, but there won't be any easy surrender terms coming from the Americans. Yet ensure that Japan's defeats are worse in 1944 & you'll more than like have Japan's early surrender.

Brilliantlight

Agrippa

As for the re-training issue, the situation would be much the same as in Europe after the surrender of Germany. The US wouldn't be able to instantly redeploy to Europe after a Japanese surrender. The Philippines, south-east Asia, and the Dutch East Indies at the very least would need a garrison. Other divisions would have to be demobilized. There would only be a few divisions available for European duty so I imagine moving them to Europe would have a pretty low priority on the shipping list. By the time they got to Europe, they would need to be re-equipped and re-trained. Army planners wanted several weeks of redeployment training for units moving from Europe to the Pacific after the surrender of Germany I don't imagine it would be much different going the other way. As it is, with the surrender of Germany in May, the Army would have been unable to supply any re-trained divisions for duty in the Pacific before the start of Operation Olympic in November. With the slower redeployment from the Pacific to Europe, I can't see any sizeable Pacific formations seeing duty in Europe before Germany surrendered.

Actually, there was a large scale invasion of southern France. Operation Dragoon was the Allied invasion of Southern France between Toulon and Cannes on 15th August 1944. The operation was originally, and for most of the planning stage, known as "Anvil".


What is D-Day? Remembering the storied 1944 invasion of Normandy

On June 6, 1944, an armada of 150,000 Allied soldiers landed on five beaches in Normandy, France. Their mission: to free Europe from the tyranny of Nazi domination. This event was the largest seaborne invasion in history, and included a collection of American, British, Canadian and Australian troops, with soldiers coming from a total of 12 countries.

Launched as the "Operation Overlord" campaign, the battle that initiated the invasion of Normandy is forever etched in history by one word: D-Day. It would be the day on which the rest of World War II turned.

Some historians consider it the single most important day in the 20th century. The attack had been planned for more than a year. The amphibious landings were supported by an airborne drop of 13,000 men later that night. More than 11,000 aircraft and 5,000 ships landed across the five Normandy beachheads, code-named Utah, Gold, Juno, Sword, and Omaha. The day was plagued by bad weather. Through it all, the attack remained a secret, one that surprised the Germans.

U.S. troops wade ashore during the Allied invasion of Normandy, France, June 6, 1944. D-Day was one of the world's most gut-wrenching and consequential battles. Nearly 160,000 American, British, Canadian and French troops participated in the invasion of northwest France, known as Operation Overlord. More than 9,000 Allied forces were killed or wounded. AP Photo

Upon landing, Allied soldiers encountered thousands of German soldiers dug into high-ground barracks with powerful 150 mm machine guns ready to clip them as they emerged off metal landing crafts. Hundreds of men died instantly some drowned from the weight of their supply packs. Even if they survived Nazi gunfire, Allied troops encountered heavily fortified obstacles like wooden stakes, barbed wire and metal tripods.

The Allies would not be deterred. Between 4,000 and 9,000 Nazi troops were killed. By the end of the evening, the Germans were in retreat and the Allies had established control of the area.

The cost of victory was tremendous. There were an estimated 10,000 Allied casualties, with 4,414 confirmed dead. But out of this carnage emerged a new way forward, as the western front was finally opened against Hitler, marking the beginning of his downfall.

This invasion of Normandy resulted in a decisive Allied victory over Axis powers in France, and set the stage for an Allied victory over all of Europe one year later.

A view of landing craft, barrage balloons, and Allied troops landing at Normandy, France on D-Day, June 6, 1944. Library of Congress/U.S. Maritime Commission


FDR Shelters Refugees in Oswego, NY

President Roosevelt calls for a “free port” for refugees at Fort Ontario in Oswego, NY.

Frame Your Search

Fort Ontario, Oswego, War Refugee Board, refugee

On June 12, 1944 , President Franklin D. Roosevelt formally announced his plan to create a free port for refugees at Fort Ontario in Oswego, New York. Under this plan, nearly 1,000 refugees&mdashmostly Jews&mdashwere transported from Allied-liberated territory in northern Italy to an emergency shelter established by the War Refugee Board at Fort Ontario. Roosevelt circumvented the rigid immigration quotas by identifying these refugees as his &ldquoguests,&rdquo but that status gave them no legal standing and required their return to Europe once conditions permitted their repatriation.

The refugees arrived at Fort Ontario in August 1944. Because of their undefined immigrant status, the refugees were not permitted to leave Fort Ontario, even to work or to visit family members already settled in the United States though some refugee children were permitted to attend public schools outside the camp. They struggled to create a community within the camp, but the close quarters and their uncertain futures made for tense relations.

On September 20, 1944 , First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt made a well-publicized visit to the camp and, as she did so often to rally support for her husband's policies, wrote about the visit in her syndicated column, &ldquoMy Day.&rdquo The war came to an end, and since many of the refugees had family in the United States, they resisted repatriation to Europe. Advocates for the refugees continually lobbied Congress and the president to allow them to stay in America. Finally, after the refugees had spent 18 months in the camp, President Harry S Truman permitted their legal entry into the country. The camp closed a short time later in February 1946.

Dates to Check

Typically, daily newspapers reported news the morning after it occurred. However, some papers were printed in multiple editions, including evening news. If you are using an evening paper, begin your search on the same day as the event being researched.

June 9 - 20, 1944 News reports about Franklin D. Roosevelt's announcement that the War Refugee Board would shelter one thousand refugees at Fort Ontario.

June 14 - 30, 1944 Editorials, opinion pieces, letters to the editor, and political cartoons regarding the creation of a refugee shelter at Fort Ontario.

August 3 - 11, 1944 News reports about the arrival of refugees at Fort Ontario.

August 4 - 31, 1944 Editorials, opinion pieces, letters to the editor, and political cartoons regarding the arrival and condition of refugees at Fort Ontario.

September 20 - 28, 1944 News reports about Eleanor Roosevelt's visit to Fort Ontario and conditions in the camp.

September 21, 1944 - October 3, 1944 Editorials, opinion pieces, letters to the editor, and political cartoons regarding Eleanor Roosevelt's visit to Fort Ontario and conditions in the camp.

Learn More

    (Encyclopedia Article) (Encyclopedia Article) (Encyclopedia Article) (Bibliography) (Oswego State University of New York)

Bibliography

Breitman, Richard, and Alan Kraut. American Refugee Policy and European Jewry, 1933&ndash1945 . Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987.

Feingold, Henry. The Politics of Rescue: The Roosevelt Administration and the Holocaust, 1938&ndash1945 . New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1970.

Friedman, Saul. No Haven for the Oppressed: United States Policy Toward Jewish Refugees, 1938&ndash1945 . Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 1973.

Gruber, Ruth. Haven: The Dramatic Story of 1000 World War II Refugees and How They Came to America . New York: Times Books/Random House, 2000.

Lowenstein, Sharon. &ldquoA New Deal for Refugees: The Promise and Reality of Oswego.&rdquo In America, American Jews, and the Holocaust , edited by Jeffrey S. Gurock, 301 &ndash 317. New York: Routledge, 1998.

Lowenstein, Sharon R. Token Refuge: The Story of the Jewish Refugee Shelter at Oswego, 1944&ndash1946 . Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986.

Marks, Edward B. Token Shipment: The Story of America&rsquos War Refugee Shelter . Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office, [1946].

Smart, Joseph H. Don&rsquot Fence Me In!: Fort Ontario Refugees: How They Won Their Freedom . Salt Lake City: Heritage Arts, 1991.

Syrkin, Marie. &ldquoAt Fort Ontario.&rdquo In The State of the Jews , 247&ndash254. Washington, DC: New Republic Books, 1980.

Warnes, Kathy. &ldquoDon&rsquot Fence Me In!&rdquo: Memories of the Fort Ontario Refugees and their Friends . Oswego, NY: Safe Haven Inc., Museum and Education Center, 2004.


12 things you need to know about Anne Frank and her diary

The diary of Anne Frank (1929–45), written while she and her family were in hiding in Amsterdam during the Second World War to escape from the Nazis, is one of the most famous – and bestselling – books of all time. But how much do you know about the famous diary? Historian Zoe Waxman shares 12 fascinating facts…

This competition is now closed

Published: March 9, 2020 at 2:35 pm

Here, Zoe Waxman, senior research fellow at the Oxford Centre for Hebrew and Jewish Studies, shares 12 interesting facts about Anne Frank and her diary…

Anne Frank’s diary is (arguably) the most famous diary of all time

Anne Frank’s diary, originally written in Dutch and published in 1947 in Holland as Het Achterhuis: Dagboekbrieven 12 Juni 1942–1 Augustus 1944 (The Secret Annexe: Diary-Letters 12 June 1942–1 August 1944), had an initial print run of only 1,500 copies, but has since become something of a phenomenon. It has been translated into more than 60 languages – from Albanian to Welsh – including Farsi, Arabic, Sinhalese and Esperanto. In 2009 it was added to the Unesco Memory of the World Register.

The Anne Frank House in Amsterdam – Anne’s hiding place during the Second World War – is also the most visited site in the Netherlands, and Anne now even has her own unofficial Facebook page. Children from all around the world continue to write letters to Anne as if she were their friend. She has remained irrevocably the eternal child.

Anne’s sister, Margot Betti Frank, also wrote a diary

Anneliese Marie Frank, known as ‘Anne’ to her friends and family, was born in Frankfurt-am-Main on 12 June 1929. She was the second and youngest child of an assimilated Jewish family. Her sister, Margot Betti Frank, who was three years older than Anne, also wrote a diary – although it has never been found.

Margot was the more studious sister. Anne, while intelligent, was often distracted by talking to her friends during school.

Anne Frank received her diary as a 13th birthday present

Anne chose her own diary – an autograph book bound with white and red checked cloth, and closed with a small lock – as a present for her 13th birthday. This birthday, on Friday 12 June 1942, was the last before she and her family went into hiding. To mark the occasion, Anne’s mother, Edith, made cookies for Anne to share with her friends at school. Anne also enjoyed a party with a strawberry pie and a room decorated with flowers.

Anne’s first entries describe how her family were segregated and discriminated against. Anne addressed many of her entries to an imaginary girl friend, ‘Dear Kitty’ or ‘Dearest Kitty’.

Anne Frank and her family went into hiding after her sister was summoned to a German work camp

After Hitler’s rise to power in 1933, Anne’s family decided to escape to Amsterdam, in the Nazi-occupied Netherlands, to flee the rapidly escalating anti-Semitism in Germany. Anne and her family went into hiding in Amsterdam on 6 July 1942, the day after Anne’s elder sister, Margot, received a call-up for a German work camp. Anne’s parents, Otto and Edith, had already planned to go into hiding with their daughters on 16 July, and had been arranging a secret hiding place. They went into hiding earlier than planned following Margot’s call-up, seeking refuge in the house behind Otto’s office on Prinsengracht 263 and leaving behind Anne’s beloved cat named Moortje.

Four other Jews lived in the secret annex alongside the Frank family

The Franks were soon joined by four other Jews: Hermann and Auguste van Pels with their son Peter (the boy Anne was to fall in love with), and for a time, Fritz Pfeffer, a German dentist. Anne’s diary describes in great detail the tension between the eight individuals, who had to stay indoors at all times and remain quiet so as not to arouse the suspicion of staff working in the warehouse downstairs. The entrance to the annex was concealed behind a moveable bookcase.

Anne Frank spent a total of two years and 35 days in hiding

During that time she was unable to see the sky, could not feel the rain or sun, walk on grass, or even walk for any length of time. Anne focused on studying and reading books on European history and literature. She also spent time on her appearance: curling her dark hair and manicuring her nails. She made lists of the toiletries she dreamt one day of buying, including: “lipstick, eyebrow pencil, bath salts, bath powder, eau-de-Cologne, soap, powder puff” (Wednesday 7 October 1942).

Anne wanted to become a famous writer

While in hiding Anne hoped that she would one day be able to return to school and she dreamt of spending a year in Paris and another in London. She wanted to study the history of art and become fluent in different languages while seeing “beautiful dresses” and “doing all kind of exciting things”. Ultimately she wanted to become “a journalist, and later on a famous writer” (Thursday 11 May 1944).

With no friends to confide in, Anne used the diary to express her fear, bordedom, and the struggles she faced growing up. On 16 March 1944, she wrote: “The nicest part is being able to write down all my thoughts and feelings, otherwise I’d absolutely suffocate.” In addition to her diary, Anne wrote short stories and collated her favourite sentences by other writers in a notebook.

Anne rewrote her diary after listening to a BBC broadcast

On 28 March 1944, Anne and her family listened to a BBC programme broadcast illegally by Radio Oranje (the voice of the Dutch government-in-exile). Gerrit Bolkestein, the Dutch minister of education, art and science, who was exiled in London, stated that after the war he wished to collect eyewitness accounts of the experiences of the Dutch people under the German occupation. Anne immediately began rewriting and editing her diary with the view to future publication, calling it The Secret Annex. She did this at the same time as keeping her original, more private diary.

The Franks were discovered just two months after the Allied landings in Normandy

By listening daily to the broadcasts of Radio Oranje and the BBC, Anne’s father, Otto Frank, was able to follow the progress of the Allied forces. He had a small map of Normandy that he marked with little red pins. On Tuesday 6 June 1944, Anne excitedly wrote: “Is this really the beginning of the long-awaited liberation?” Tragically, it was not to be. Two months after the Allied landings in Normandy, the police discovered the Franks’ hiding place.

Anne Frank’s diary was rescued by Miep Gies, her father’s friend and secretary

On 4 August 1944, everyone in the annex was arrested. On 4 August 1944, three days after Anne’s final diary entry, the Gestapo arrested Anne together with her family and the other people they were hiding with. They were betrayed by an anonymous source who had reported their existence to the German authorities. Otto’s secretary, Miep Gies, who had helped the Franks go into hiding and visited them frequently, retrieved Anne’s diary from the annex, hoping to one day to return it to her.

The exact date of Anne Frank’s death is unknown

Anne was first sent to Westerbork, a transit camp in the Netherlands, before being deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau. More people were murdered at Auschwitz than at any other camp – at least 1.1 million men, women and children perished there, 90 per cent of them Jews.

Anne and her sister Margot survived Auschwitz only to be sent to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp. There the two girls died of typhus shortly before the camp was liberated by the British Army on 15 April 1945. The exact date of their deaths is unknown. Margot was 19 years old and Anne was just 15.

Anne Frank’s father was initially unsure about publishing her story

Anne’s father, Otto, was the only person from the secret annex to survive. He returned to Amsterdam following the liberation of Auschwitz, learning en route of his wife’s death. In July 1945 he met one of the Brilleslijper sisters, who had been at Bergen-Belsen with Anne and Margot. From her, he learned that his daughters were dead.

Miep Gies passed on Anne’s diary to Otto Frank in July 1945. Otto later recalled: “I began to read slowly, only a few pages each day, more would have been impossible, as I was overwhelmed by painful memories. For me, it was a revelation. There, was revealed a completely different Anne to the child that I had lost. I had no idea of the depths of her thoughts and feelings.”

After initially feeling uncertain about publishing Anne’s diary, he finally decided to fulfill his daughter’s wish. The diary of Anne Frank was first published in the Netherlands on 25 June 1947.

Zoe Waxman is a senior research fellow at the Oxford Centre for Hebrew and Jewish Studies and the author of Pocket Giants: Anne Frank (The History Press, 2015), a biography of Anne Frank.

This article was first published on History Extra in March 2016


Watch the video: Universal News Volume 17, Release 302. June 12, 1944 (September 2022).

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