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Chase, Samuel - History

Chase, Samuel - History



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Chase, Samuel (1741-1811) Justice of the Supreme Court: Samuel Chase was born in Somerset County, Maryland, on April 17, 1741. Samuel Chase was born in 1741 in a Maryland farm house. Between the age of eighteen and twenty he studied law with a firm in Annapolis, opening his own practice in 1761. In 1764 he joined the colonial legislature, and stayed on for the next decade. When the Stamp Act was passed, he was condemned by Annapolis officials for his involvement in the Sons of Liberty. Between 1774 and 1775, he was active in many patriot organizations; including the Maryland Committee of Correspondence, Council of Safety and the Provincial Convention. He played an active role in the Continental Congress, advocating an embargo on trade with Britain and defending George Washington from his opponents. In 1776, he traveled to Montreal as part of a committee which unsuccessfully sought to form a union with Canada. In 1778, he was not returned to Congress because of accusations of having used privileged information to make money on the flour market. Between 1788 and 1795, he served as chief judge of the Baltimore County criminal court. Although he initially opposed the Constitution, he went on to sign it and become a strong supporter of the Federalists. He held judicial seats at both the county and state level, and between 1796 and 1811 he was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court. In the Supreme Court, he emphasized the supremacy of the federal government over state laws, and supported the limitation of legislative powers. The House of Representatives impeached him in 1804, for misconduct, because he had openly denounced the Jefferson Administration in court. The Senate acquitted him, however, explaining that Chase's behavior did could not be fairly considered misconduct. Chase remained on the Supreme Court until his death in Washington, D.C., on June 19, 1811. He was buried in St. Paul's Cemetery.


Chase, Samuel - History

Compiled by Dr. Charles Banks, c. 1925.
Transcribed and prepared for the web by C. Baer 1999.
[Comments in brackets added by C. Baer, 1999. Sources upon request.]

12. ISAAC CHASE , ( Thomas1 ), the first of the name to settle on Martha's Vineyard, was descended from the Chase family of the parish of Chesham, Buckinghamshire, through Aquila, ( a ) his grandfather, bapt. 14 Aug. 1580. Richard,( b ) his great grand-father, bapt. 23 Aug. 1542 (who m. Joan Bishop 16 May 1564) and Thomas ( c ). Isaac2 was b. abt. 1 Apr. 1650, or 1647 (according to his gravestone), and came first to Tisbury in 1674 bringing with him the trade of a blacksmith as well as his predilections for the Quaker religion. [See also Annals of Tisbury: Sketches of the Early Settlers. ]

He m. (1) MARY PERKINS of Hampton, N. H. (sister of his fellow emigrant to the Vineyard, Jacob Perkins) 20 Feb. 1673, by whom he had no issue. She d. soon after and he m. (2) MARY TILTON (sister of another fellow emigrant, Samuel Tilton (3) [*See Note.]) 5 Oct. 1675, the ceremony being performed by Rev. John Mayhew. She was b. 1658-9 and d. 14 June 1746 being the mother of all his children. His Wil1 12 Feb. 1721-22 was pro. July 1727, and his large landed estate, comprising nearly the whole of the present village of Vineyard Haven, became an inheritance for his children. [He is buried at Crossways Cemetery.]

20. THOMAS, b. 9 Nov. 1677.
21. RACHEL, b. 25 Oct. 1679 m. (1) SAMUEL KNIGHT (20) of Charlestown 19 July 1700 (2) SAMUEL MUNKLEY after 1721.
22. ISAAC, b. 21 Jan. 1681.
23. ABRAHAM, b. 10 Jan. 1683.
24. JAMES, b. 15 Jan. 1685.
25. MARY, b. 17 Jan. 1687 m. BENJAMIN WEEKS (16) 14 Jan. 1704.
26. JOSEPH, b. 26 Feb. 1689.
27. JONATHAN, b. 28 Dec. 1691.
28. HANNAH, b. 25 Nov.1693 m. NATHAN PEASE (120) 30 Oct. 1712.
29. SARAH, b. 15 Oct. 1695 m. SAMUEL COBB 27 June 1716. [She is buried at West Tisbury Village Cemetery.]
30. PRISCILLA, b. 12 Nov. 1697 m. NATHAN FOLGER 18 Nov. 1718.
31. ELIZABETH, b. 7 Sept. 1703 d. 27 Sept. 1719 unm. [She is buried at Crossways Cemetery.]

20. THOMAS CHASE , ( Isaac,2 Thomas1 ), b. 9 Nov. 1677 res. Homes Hole, master-mariner. He m. JANE SMITH (350) 21 Feb. 1704, who was b. abt. 1685. He d. 22 Dec. 1721 at Virginia during a coasting voyage in his sloop "Vineyard". His est. was divided 15 Oct. 1725. [His gravestone can be found at Crossways Cemetery.] The wid. m. (2) THOMAS CATHCART (10) 15 May 1724.

35. THOMAS, b. 29 Dec. 1713.
36. SARAH, b. 14 Dec. 1717 m. (l) SAMUEL DAGGETT (60) 8 Nov. 1733 (2) EBENEZER ALLEN (59) abt. 1745. [She is buried at Crossways Cemetery.]

22. ISAAC CHASE , ( Isaac,2 Thomas1 ), b. 21 Jan. 1681 res. Chickemmoo, blacksmith and mariner. He m. MARY PEASE (65) 3 Apr. 1702, who was b. abt. 1680. He d. at sea 13 Oct. 1716 and his est. was adm. by his bro. Abraham 25 Feb. 1719-20. The widow m. (2) RICHARD CROOKER or Crocker 9 July 1720.

40. NATHAN, b. 16 July 1702.
41. CORNELIUS, b. 14 July 1705 d. abt. 1727 unm.
42. STEPHEN, b. 24 Sept. 1708.
43. ISAAC, b. 15 July 1712.
44. JOSEPH, b. 22 Dec. 1713.
45. LEVI, b. 30 Mch 1716 res. Sandwich, Mass. bef. 1739.

23. ABRAHAM CHASE , ( Isaac,2 Thomas1 ), b. 10 Jan. 1683 Homes Hole, ferryman, innholder, trader. He m. (1) ABIGAIL BARNARD (1709) prob. dau. of Nathaniel and Mary (Barnard) Barnard of Nantucket who was b. 1685 and d. 15 Oct. 1731 m. (2) MERCY NICKERSON of Falmouth, dau. of Nathaniel3 Nickerson of Chatham, 5 Mch. 1732, who was b. 1710 and d. 11 Sept. 1786. His will 1 Feb. 1760 was pro. 5 Mch. 1764. [He is buried at Crossways Cemetery.] His wid. Mercy m. (2) THOMAS WINSTON and d. as widow of the latter [on 11 Sept. 1786.]

50. MARY, b. abt. 1710 m. REUBEN BUNKER 23 Sept. 1731.
51. ELEANOR, b. 8 Oct 1712 m. JAMES LONG 29 Nov.1734.
52. ABIGAIL, b. 30 Oct. 1714 m. JOHN WELDON.
53. ABRAHAM, b. 14 Feb. 1716.
54. TIMOTHY, b. 23 July 1717 prob. d. s. p.
55. HANNAH, b. 15 Mch. 1725 m. (1) JOHN FERGUSON 21 Sept. 1742 (2) CHRISTOPHER LUCE (55) 28 Mch. 1769.
By Second Wife:
56. VALENTINE, b. 15 June 1735.
57. ZACCHEUS, b. 15 June 1737.
58. DAVID, b. 4 June 1739 d. y. [He is buried at Crossways Cemetery.]
59. WAITSTILL MERCY, b. 9 Apr. 174: (1) JOHN WEST (of Dartmouth) 3 July 1758 (2) JEREMIAH CRAPO.
60. MARGARET, b. 21 May 1750 m. SAMUEL LOOK (53) 11 Apr. 1769. [She is buried at Crossways Cemetery.]

24. JAMES CHASE , ( Isaac,2 Thomasl ), b: Jan. 1685 res. Homes Hole rem. to Newport, R. I. abt. 1714 and to Nantucket bef. 1740. He m. RACHAEL BROWNE dau. of John and Rachael (Gardner) Browne who was b. 14 Dec. 1687 and d. 24 Sept. 1741.

70. ANNE, b. 22 Apt. 1709 m. TIMOTHY FOLGER 5 Dec. 1733.
71. BENJAMIN, b. 28 Aug. 1710 m. MARGARET GARDNER 12 Dec. 1734.
72. RACHEL, b. 30 Aug. 1712 m. PETER FITCH 18 Feb. 1730.
73. JAMES, b. 31 July 1715 m. ANNE GARDNER 15 Dec. 1737.
74. BROWNE, b. 13 Mch. 1718.
75. ELIZABETH, b. 16 Feb. 1720 m. GEORGE GARDNER 18 Jan 1738-9.
76. JEDIDAH, b. 15 Feb. 1723 m. ROBERT BARKER 16 Feb. 1744.

26. JOSEPH CHASE , ( Isaac,2 Thomas1 ), b. 26 Feb. 1689 res. Homes Hole, hatter. He m. LYDIA COFFIN 26 July 1714, who was b. 6 May 1697 and d. 17 July 1749. He rem. to Nantucket bef. 1729 and later abt. 1737 to E. where he and his wife are buried. He owned a lot on the harbor front of E., one of the "five and twenty" south of Main Street. [Joseph and Lydia are buried at Tower Hill Cemetery.]

80. ABEL, b. 9 Oct. 1719.
81. MARY, b. 9 Apr. 1720 m. DAVID DUNHAM (141) 4 Oct 1748.
82. PRISCILLA, b. (1728) m. HENRY SMITH 17 Mch. 1740-41.
83. DAMARIS, b. 12 May 1724 m. PETER RIPLEY (17).
84. LYDIA, b. 1726 m. SHUBAEL DUNHAM (130).
85. RACHEL, b. (1730) m. THOMAS GWINN 9 July 1769.
86. SARAH, b. 7 Apr. 1735 m. SETH PEASE (163) 1 Oct. 1753.
87. BENJAMIN, b. 14 May 1737 prob. d. y.
88. JOSEPH, b. 14 May 1737.
89. THOMAS, bapt. 24 June 1739.

27. JONATHAN CHASE , ( Isaac,2 Thomas1 ), b. 28 Dec. 1691 res. Homes Hole rem. to Newport, R. I. where he followed the business of vintner. He m. MEHITABLE _____ about 1711, but nothing is known of her parentage birth or death. He d. 20 July 1743. It is prob. that Quaker records may have the desired information.

90. ANNE, b. 1 Nov. 1711 m. (1) RICHARD EDWARDS (2) JOHN SCOTT l0 July 1740.
91. PERKINS, b. 6 Jan. 1713 m. ELIZABETH IRESON 9 July 1738.
92. MEHITABLE, b. 4 May 1716 m. GEORGE LAWRENCE 9 July 1738.
93. JONATHAN, b. 1 Feb. 1718 m. ANN KELLEY 9 June 1739.
94. JEDIDAH, b.4 Sept. 1720 d.1 Dec. 1729.
95. PHILANDA, b. (1728) m. ELEAZER WHITE 8 Apr. 1741.
96. ABIGAIL, b.30 Jan. 1724 m. JOHN DOWNS 17 June 1744.
97. ANDREW, b.30 Aug. 1726 m. ANNA ALDEN.
98. HEMAN, b.6 Apr. 1728 m. PAMELIA (BREETER?)
99. PHILIP, b. 3 Oct. 1730 m. ANNA BUDD.

35. THOMAS CHASE , ( Thomas,3 Isaac,2 Thomas1 ), b. 29 Dec. 1713 res. Homes Hole, mariner. He m. ELIZABETH ATHEARN (23) 16 Aug. 1733, who was b. 13 Apr. 1715. He d. 7 Jan. 1738-39 in Virginia. The wid. m. (2) CAPT. PETER WEST (25) 16 Dec. 1740 [and died 2 Sept. 1789.]

40. NATHAN CHASE , ( Isaac,3-2 Thomas1 ), b. 16 July 1702 res. Nantucket, cordwainer. He m. PARNELL LONG 24 Oct. 1723. He rem. to T., 1739 and d. there 1750. His will 30 Aug. 1750 was pro. 20 Nov. 1750 and division of his est. was made 16 Nov. 1757. The will of Wid. Parnell Chase was dated 12 Sept. 1757 and pro. 4 Oct. 1757.

110. THOMAS.
111. JONATHAN, who died bet. 1750-57 s. p.
112. BENJAMIN, died abt. 1758, prob. in the French and Indian War. His will 24 May 1758 pro. 2 Jan. 1759 leaves all property to brothers Thomas and Shubael.
113. SHUBAEL.
114. ISAAC.
115. MARY, m. THOMAS SMITH (411) 25 Aug. 1748.
116. ANN, m. JOSEPH HOVEY.

42. STEPHEN CHASE , ( Isaac,3-2 Thomas1 ), b. 24 Sept. 1708 res. Nantucket. He m. (1) PATIENCE MARSHALL 7 Sept. 1730 dau. of Joseph Marshall. She d. 27 Feb. 1749 and he m. (2) DINAH FOLGER 3 Jan. 1742.

120. CHARLES, b. 31 May 1731 m. (1) JANE COLEMAN 30 July 1755 (2) EUNICE COFFIN, 16 Apr. 1771.
121. CORNELIUS, b. 21 Sept. 1734.
122. ABIGAIL, b. 15 Apr. 1737.
123. REBECCA, b. 10 July 1739.
By Second Wife:
124. MARGARET, b. (1743) m. CRISPUS GARDNER 8 Dec. 1768.
125. DEBORAH, b. (1745).
126. MIRIAM, b. (1747) m. JOHN MORRIS 9 Jan. 1772.
127. MARY, b. (1749)
128. JOSEPH, b. (1751) m. REBECCA FOLGER 15 Feb. 1778.
129. REUBEN, b. 23 June 1754 d. 23 June 1824 m. JUDITH GARDNER 19 June 1783
129a. ZIMRI.

43. ISAAC CHASE , ( Isaac,3-2 Thomas1 ), b. 15 July 1712 res. T., carpenter. He m. (1) MARY COFFIN 24 Feb. 1736, who d. 2 Oct. 1765 m. (2) MRS. BETHIAH (MAYHEW) (85) NORTON, wid. of Jacob, who was b. 31 Mch. 1712 and d. 29 Mch. 1796.

130. EUNICE, b. 4 Aug. 1738 m. (1) VALENTINE CHASE (56) (2) DAVID MERRY (33) 29 Dec. 1761.
131. RHODA, b. 4 May 1741 m. JAMES WINSLOW 3 Nov. 1757.
132. GEORGE, b. 30 Mch 1744 m. LUCY NORTON (144) 16 Feb.1769 and d. 22 Feb. 1778, prob. s. p.
133. ISAAC, b. 8 May 1746 d. Nov. 1771.
134. MARY, b. 11 June 1748 m. GEORGE WEST (131) 10 Dec. 1767.
135. JOSEPH, b. 6 Aug. 1750 m. MARTHA HILLMAN (147) 26 Dec. 1772.
136. HANNAH, b.16 Aug. 1756 m. ELISHA LUCE (645) 9 July 1778.
137. CORNELIUS, b. 10 June 1759.

44. JOSEPH CHASE , ( Isaac,3-2 Thomas1 ), b. 22 Dec. 1713 res. Nantucket, mariner. He m. MIRIAM COFFIN 26 Dec. 1737.

140. FRANCIS, b. 10 Sept. 1738 m. NAOMI GARDNER 5 Jan. 1764.
141. PAUL, b. 2 Aug. 1741 d. 3 Dec. 1756.

53. ABRAHAM CHASE, ( Abraham,3 Isaac,2 Thomas1 ), b. 14 Dec. 1716 res. Homes Hole, trader. He m. DELIVERANCE NICKERSON, dau. of William, who was b. 1712 and d. 3 Sept. 1788. He d. prob. in 1752 as inventory of his estate was made in May of that year and adm. granted to the widow same time. His property was valued at £183-7-1.

160. ABIGAIL, b. ( 1738 ) m. JOHN BURGESS their son Tristram Burgess b. l770 was a member of Congress and Chief Justice of Rhode Island.
161. ELIZABETH, b. ( 1740 ) m. MATTHEW MERRY (42) 24 Dec.1767.
162. MERCY, b. 17 Feb. 1743 m. JETHRO ATHEARN (48) 5 Dec. 1765.
163. TIMOTHY, b. 22 June 1745.
164. BENJAMIN, b. ( 1747 ).
165. MARY, b. Jan. 1749 m. (l) NATHANIEL KETCHUM 17 Jan. 1769 (2) JOSEPH MERRY (44) 18 June 1778. [She is buried at Crossways Cemetery.]
166. DELIVERANCE, b. ( 1761 ) m. CHARLES EDMUNDSON 17 Jan. 1773.

56. VALENTINE CHASE, ( Abraham,3 Isaac,2 Thomas1 ), b. 15 June 1735 res. Homes Hole. He m. EUNICE CHASE (130). He d. bef. 6 Apr. 1761 and his wid. m. (2) DAVID MERRY (33) 29 Dec. 1761.

180. ABRAHAM, b. 9 Dec. 1756 m. ELIZABETH BOURNE of Falmouth, Mass. 5 Nov.1778 Rem. to Cincinnati, O. and d. there Nov. 1832.
181. EUNICE, b. 18 Mch. 1759.

57. ZACCHEUS CHASE ( Abraham,3 Isaac,2 Thomas1 ), b. 15 June 1737 res. Homes Hole, cooper and mariner. He m. (1) HANNAH BUTLER (635) 22 Feb. 1759, who was b. 20 June 1736 and d. 10 May 1770 m. (2) prob. MRS. DELIVERANCE (CAHOON) DAGGETT wid. of Peter Daggett (110). He d. 1778 at sea.

190. NICKERSON, b. abt. 1773. [He married Fanny Norton (630). They were the parents of Serena Chase.]

80. ABEL CHASE , ( Joseph,3 Isaac,2 Thomas1 ), b. 9 Oct. 1719 res. E., hatter. He m. MERCY MAYHEW (107) 14 Feb. 1744, who was b. 22 July 1725 and d. 23 Feb. 1807. He d. 25 Jan. 1808.

200. BENJAMIN, b. 23 Dee.1745 m. ELIZABETH BROCK 27 Feb.1768.
201. ZEPHANIAH, b. 14 Mch. 1748 m. (1) ABIGAIL SKIFFE (104) 10 Oct. 1773 (2) LOVE (WEST) SKIFFE (136) 16 Jan. 1785 rem. to Windham, N. Y. [Shirley Pond Albert [email protected]> writes that Zephaniah and Lovey Chase had a son David West Chase, who was taken as a baby to Jewett, NY in the Catskills. David m. Abigail Pratt (dau. of Zadock Pratt) and they had a daughter Lucy Ann Chase who married Aaron Pond.]

89. THOMAS CHASE , ( Joseph,3 Isaac,2 Thomas1 ), bapt. 24 June 1739 res. Boston, to which place he rem. as a young man and became a distiller in Auchmuty's Lane. He m. (1) ANNA FIELDS (2) MRS. ELIZABETH (COLLINS)? BAGNALL 10 Oct. 1771. He was an ardent patriot in the pre-Revolutionary times and took part in the famous "Boston Tea Party." He became officially connected with the American Party and was a member of the Committee of Inspection 1774. He joined the army after hostilities began and gradually rose to the rank of Deputy Quartermaster General of the Massachusetts Forces 1779. By m. he was connected with Gen. Thomas Mifflin of Pennsylvania. He d. 17 May 1787. "He was humane, benevolent and a sincere friend of this Country" said the Massachusetts Centinel of that date. His wid. Elizabeth m. (2) WILLIAM GREENLEAF (int. 20 Nov. 1792) and d. 19 Aug. 1808 at Stoughton, Mass.

210. ANNA, b. 20 Nov. 1764 d. y.
211. ANNA, b. 10 Aug. 1765 m. ABEL ALLEYNE (int.) 27 Oct. 1787.
212. THOMAS, b. 23 June 1767.
213. JOSEPH, b. 23 Mch. 1769 perh. d. y.
By Second Wife:
214. ABIGAIL, b. 10 June 1772.
215. (JOSEPH W.?).

100. SAMUEL CHASE , ( Thomas,4-3 Isaac,2 Thomas1 ), b. 26 May 1734 res. T. farmer. He m. JEDIDAH MAYHEW (200) who was b. 3 Mch. 1733 and d. 23 Feb. 1807. He rem. to Livermore, Me. and d. there 2 Aug. 1801.

220. SARAH, b. 9 Sept. 1753 m. WILLIAM MERRY (37) 27 Oct. 1774.
221. THOMAS, b. 30 Sept. 1755.
222. ELIZABETH, b. ( 1757 ) m. WARD TILTON.
223. SAMUEL, b. ( 1769 ) m. and lived in London, Eng.
224. LOTHROP, b. ( 1760 ) rem. to Virginia and m. there.
225. TRISTRAM, b. ( 1762 ) m. MARY MERRY (122).
226. SARSON, b. ( 1764 ).
227. OLIVE, b. 12 Aug. 1766 m. JAMES NORTON (571) 26 Mch. 1789.
228. LYDIA, b. 4 Feb. 1772 m. MOSES HILLMAN (198) 11 Sept. 1794.
229. PAINE, b. ( 1774 ) lost at sea, never heard from.
230. PRUDENCE, b. 6 July 1776 m. NAPOLEON JONES.

110. THOMAS CHASE , ( Nathan,4 Isaac,3-2 Thomas1 ), b. abt. 1724 res. T., yeoman. He m. SARAH CLAGHORN (82) 28 Apr. 1751, who was b. abt. 1727. He was living in 1790, but further knowledge of this family is wanting.

231. NATHANIEL.
232. NATHAN.
233. JAMES.
234. ANN
235. MARY, b. 29 Apr. 1769 m. SAMUEL LAMBERT (71) 4 Apr. 1787.
236. LYDIA.
237. ABRAHAM.

113. SHUBAEL CHASE , ( Nathan,4 Isaac,3-2 Thomas1 ), b. abt. 1728 res. Nantucket, cordwainer. He m. SARAH MANTER (63) 27 July 1758 came to T. abt. 1760.

240. PARNELL, b. 14 Nov.1759 m. GEORGE BROWN.
241. GEORGE, b. 16 July 1761 m. REBECCA COFFIN 17 July 1788.

114. ISAAC CHASE , ( Nathan,4 Isaac,3-2 Thomas1 ), b. abt 1730 res. Nantucket, yeoman. He m. MERCY CHADWICK 23 Nov. 1752. He d. prob. 1763 as his wid. was app'd. admx. of his est. in Dec. of that year.

250. JONATHAN, m. MARY SMITH 9 Mch. 1783.
251. BENJAMIN, b. 1760.
253. ISAAC, m. EUNICE BROWN 22 Feb. 1778.

135. JOSEPH CHASE , ( Isaac,4-3-2 Thomas1 ), b. 6 Aug. 1750 res. T. "North Shore", farmer. He m. (1) MARTHA HILLMAN (147) 26 Nov. 1772, who was b. 4 Nov. 1748, and d. 9 Jan. 1788 m. (2) EUNICE ROTCH (46) 14 July 1796, who was b. 1769 and d. 7 Sept. 1818. His will 28 Jan. 1824 was pro. 3 Dec. 1824.

270. (Son) b. ( 1773 ) d. 1794 at sea.
271. LOVE, b. 1774 m. WILLIAM DOWNS (61) 7 Nov. 1793.
272. HANNAH, b. 3 Feb. 1776 m. STEPHEN NEW 10 Jan. 1802.
273. RHODA, b. 14 Sept. 1779 m. FREEMAN DAGGETT (125).
274. FRANCIS, b. l July 1781 m. PRISCILLA LUCE (800) 8 Dec. 1803.
275. JOSEPH, b. 29 Apr. 1783 m. HANNAH ROBINSON (126) 22 June 1819.
276. CONSTANT, b. (1786) m. CHARLOTTE LUCE (1000) 28 May 1812.
By Second Wife:
277. WILLIAM, b. 27 Dec. 1800 m. TEMPERANCE GRAY (111) 26 Sept. 1821.
278. GEORGE, b. 5 July 1803 removed to Wiscasset, Me.
279. ISAAC, b. 1805 d. 1831.
280. MARY, b. 1807.
281. TRISTRAM, b. 1809. [d. 29 June 1850?]

163. TIMOTHY CHASE , ( Abraham,4-3 Isaac,2 Thomas1 ), b. 22 June 1745 res. Homes Hole, miller. He m. REBECCA BASSETT 23 Nov. 1773, dau. of Nathaniel and Hannah (Hall) Bassett, who was b. 23 Oct. 1750 and d. 28 Oct. 1821. He built the windmill formerly situated on Main Street, Vineyard Haven and now forming a part of the residence of the late Brig. Gen. A. B. Carey, U.S.A. He d. 28 Apr. 1818 and his will 27 Oct. 1815 was pro. 22 June 1818. Inventory of est. $6806.72. [He is buried at Crossways Cemetery.]

300. ABIGAIL, b. Dec. 1774 d. y. [She is buried at Crossways Cemetery.]
301. (Stillborn infant) b. 9 Mch 1777.
302. BENJAMIN, b. 2 Mch. 1779 m. ALICE F. SPALDING 20 Feb. 1806.
303. TIMOTHY, b. 28 Nov. 1781 m. (1) CONTENT DUNHAM (451) 27 Sept. 1804 (2) SARAH LUCE 7 June 1818. [He d. 14 June 1855 in Tisbury and is buried at Crossways Cemetery.]
304. DELIVERANCE, b. 21 Jan. 1784 m. EDMUND CROWELL (62) 4 Nov. 1804.
305. REBECCA, b. 14 Feb. 1787 m. CAPT. TRISTRAM LUCE (1109) 24 Jan. 1811. [She died 26 June 1862 in Tisbury.]
306. HANNAH, b. 5 Sept. 1789 m. ELISHA LUCE 14 Oct. 1810. [Did she marry (2) Alfred Norton and die 25 June 1866 in Tisbury?]

221. THOMAS CHASE , ( Samuel,5 Thomas,4-3 Isaac,2 Thomas1 ), b. 30 Sept. 1755, res. E., farmer. He m. DESIRE LUCE (482) 8 Mch. 1780, who was b. 22 June 1756 and d. Apr. 1851. He rem. to Livermore, Me. in 1791 and d. there Apr. 1844. During the Revolution he served in the Sea Forces as a privateersman and in the Naval establishment. In the latter he saw service with Commodore John Paul Jones and was captured and incarcerated in Mill Prison, Plymouth, Eng. He was the ancestor of Elizabeth Chase, b. 9 Oct. 1832, later known as Elizabeth Akers-Allen, the poetess, author of "Rock Me to Sleep, Mother" and other well-known poems.

330. THOMAS, b. 22 Feb. 1782.
331. LURA, b. 11 Mch.1784.
332. LOTHROP, b. 22 Mch 1787.
333. JAMES, b.16 Nov.1789.
334. REBECCA, b.20 Sept. 1792 m. TRISTRAM TILTON (270) 31 Dec. 1818.
335. OLIVE, b.8 Nov.1795.
336. LYDIA, b. 8 Nov. 1795.
337. LUCY, b. 14 Sept. 1801.

226. SARSON CHASE , ( Samuel,5 Thomas,4-3 Isaac,2 Thomas1 ), b. abt. 1764 res. T., farmer. He m. (1) JANE BOARDMAN (48) who was b. 14 Aug. 1767 m. (2) MARY MAYHEW (484) who was b. 10 Mch. 1774. He rem. to Livermore, Me. with his parents and d. there.

350. JANE, m. ISAAC HASKELL of New Gloucester.
351. MAYHEW, res. Livermore, shoemaker.
352. SARSON, res. Livermore rem. to Charlestown, Mass.
353. MARY, m. CHARLES HOWARD.

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The Samuel Chase Impeachment Trial

Originally an anti-Federalist opposed to the ratification of the U.S. Constitution on grounds that it deprived the states of their independence and sovereignty, Supreme Court Justice Samuel Chase changed his tune about the propriety of a strong central government once he saw the anarchy and madness wrought by the French Revolution. By the time he was seated on the nation's high court, Chase had earned a reputation for his zealous defense of the federalist party and his harsh criticism of the democratic-republican party.

Generally speaking, the Federalist Party favored a strong national government, promoted legislation that advanced mercantile interests, supported the creation of a national bank, and believed that the federal government should be run by the most well-educated and affluent Americans. The Democratic-Republican Party generally favored stronger and more independent state governments, promoted legislation that advanced agricultural interests, opposed the creation of a national bank, and believed that the federal government should be run as a popular democracy, with its power being directly and closely derived from everyday, average Americans.

Chase's political beliefs endeared him to the White House while Federalist john adams was in office. But in 1800 Democratic-Republican thomas jefferson defeated Adams to become the third president of the United States, and his Democratic-Republican Party took control of both houses of Congress. Chase had rankled Democratic-Republicans even before Jefferson took office. The beginning of the fall term of the Supreme Court in 1800 had to be postponed several weeks until Chase finished campaigning for John Adams in Maryland.

After Jefferson took office, Chase began openly assailing the president and his policies. Chase even took to condemning the Democratic-Republicans from the bench. In reading a charge to a Baltimore grand jury in May 1803, Chase unleashed what one contemporary observer called "a tirade against Democratic-Republican legislation." Dismayed that Jeffersonians in Maryland had established universal male suffrage, Chase suggested to the grand jurors that "the country … [was] headed down the road to mobocracy, the worst of all popular governments" and that, if left in power, Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans would eliminate "all security for property, and personal liberty." The "modern doctrine … that all men in a state of society are entitled to equal liberty and equal rights," Chase warned, will bring "mighty mischief upon us." Finally, Chase said that congressional Democratic-Republicans had gravely compromised the independence of the judiciary by repealing the Judiciary Act of 1801, which lame-duck Federalist lawmakers had passed to create extra federal judgeships for President Adams to fill.

When Jefferson learned of Chase's grand jury charge on May 13, 1803, he immediately wrote Joseph Nicholson, one of his party leaders in the House of Representatives, suggesting action against Chase: "Ought this seditious and official act on the principles of our Constitution, and on the proceedings of a State, to go unpunished? And to whom so pointedly as yourself will the public look for the necessary measures? I ask these questions for your consideration, for myself it is better that I should not interfere." Nicholson quietly alerted his Democratic-Republican colleagues as to Jefferson's suggestion. Less than a year later, on March 12, 1804, the U.S. House of Representatives voted to impeach Chase by a 73 to 32 margin, naming John Randolph, a cousin of Jefferson and a mercurial politician in his own right, to head the House Managers responsible for prosecuting Chase in his trial before the Senate.

The eight articles of impeachment centered on three charges. The first charge arose from Chase's remarks before the Baltimore grand jury. The second charge stemmed from his conduct in the 1800 treason trial of John Fries. The third charge focused on Chase's conduct in the 1800 sedition trial of James Callender. Together, the House managers argued, these three charges represented judicial misconduct amounting to impeachable high crimes and misdemeanors. Article II, Section 4 of the U.S Constitution provides that the federal judges "shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors."

The least serious of the charges concerned Chase's conduct in the Fries trial. Fries was accused of treason for leading a riot over a dwelling tax in Pennsylvania in 1799. At the outset of the Fries trial, Chase had delivered a written opinion in which he defined the meaning of treason as a matter of law, without ever hearing argument from the lawyers in the case. Fries' attorneys were flabbergasted. They withdrew from the case because, they contended, Chase's conduct had irrevocably tainted the jury pool and made a fair trial impossible. Without counsel, Fries was easily convicted. In defense of his actions, Chase told the Senate that before the jury began deliberating in the Fries case, he had instructed the jurors that they had the final word on the definition of treason and the final say on how that definition would be applied to the facts of the case.

The most serious charge concerned Chase's conduct at the Callender trial. Callender had been indicted under the provisions of the Sedition Act for publishing a book accusing John Adams of being a British toady and a monarchist. Passed in 1798 by a Federalist Congress, the Sedition Act made it a crime to speak or write in such a way as to bring the president or Congress "into contempt or disrepute." Jeffersonians viewed the act as a political tool that the Adams administration used to muzzle its opponents.

During the impeachment trial, the House Managers presented evidence that Chase had prejudged the Callender case. They offered testimony that Chase, upon first reading Callender's book, had expressed the intent to present the offending passages to a grand jury himself and obtain an indictment against the defendant. Chase admitted threatening such action but denied following through on the threat and argued that the threat by itself did not constitute a high crime or misdemeanor. The House Managers also presented evidence that Chase failed to exclude a juror from sitting on the jury, even though the juror had formed an unfavorable opinion about Callender. Chase admitted that one juror indicated having formed such an opinion, but Chase said that the same juror also said he had not formed an opinion about the specific charges against the defendant.

The trial began on February 9, 1805, and the House Managers took ten full days to present the testimony of more than 50 witnesses. Chase did not testify during the proceedings but instead read a prepared statement that attempted to refute the charges. Closing arguments started on February 20 and lasted several days. Martin Luther, one the country's most able and respected lawyers, represented Chase. Seven House Managers, led by Randolph, spoke for the prosecution. Thirty-Four senators weighed the evidence, 25 Democratic-Republicans and 9 Federalists. aaron burr, Jefferson's vice president, presided over the proceedings. Twenty-two votes, or two-thirds of the Senate, were necessary for conviction.

On March 1, 1805, the Senate announced its verdicts. Chase was acquitted on all counts. The closest vote was 19–15 in favor of convicting Chase for his anti–Democratic-Republican remarks to the Baltimore grand jury. Contemporary observers and historians have given Martin Luther a lion's share of the credit for the acquittals. His closing argument deeply impressed the Senate with ideas that Chase was a wronged man and that the integrity and independence of the federal judiciary would be imperiled by conviction. John Randolph's closing argument, by contrast, was described as so ineffective, disorganized, shrill, and blatantly partisan that even Thomas Jefferson was alienated.

The failure of the Senate to convict allowed Chase to return to the Supreme Court and serve 6 more years as an associate justice. More importantly, the acquittal deterred the House of Representatives from using impeachment as a partisan political tool. Some historians have suggested that the Chase impeachment trial was just a test case for House Democratic-Republicans who would have pursued other impeachments more aggressively.

The Chase impeachment is also said to have left a lasting impression on Chase's friend, Chief Justice john marshall, who spent much of his later career attempting to demonstrate that the nation's high court was separate from and even above party politics. In the final analysis, these two results represent flip sides of the same coin: one result increased the independence of the federal judiciary from interference by the legislative and executive branches, while the other result revealed the danger to that independence created by unelected federal judges who publicly attack the popular policies of democratically elected lawmakers.

Further readings

Presser, Stephen B. 1991. The Original Misunderstanding: The English, the Americans, and the Dialectic of Federalist Jurisprudence. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic.

Rehnquist, William H. 1992. Grand Inquests: The Historic Impeachments of Justice Samuel Chase and President Andrew Johnson. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic.

Cross-references

favored a strong government ruled by an elite and he opposed the radical ideas of the French Revolution.

Chase was born April 17, 1741, in Somerset County, Maryland. His father, Thomas Chase, was a British-born clergyman of the Church of England. His mother, Matilda Walker Chase, died at Chase's birth. In 1744 the family moved to Baltimore where Chase grew up and received a classical education under his father's supervision. Chase studied law in Annapolis, Maryland, at the office of Attorney John Hall from 1759 until he was admitted to the bar in 1763. In 1762 Chase married Ann Baldwin. They had seven children, three of them dying in infancy. Ann died sometime between 1776 and 1779 and in 1784 Chase married Hannah Kitty Giles, with whom he had two daughters.

Chase established a successful law practice in Annapolis, the colonial capital and later the state capital of Maryland. He also became prominent in colonial politics. In 1764 he was elected to the lower house of Maryland's colonial legislature as a representative of Annapolis and by the early 1770s he had become well-known as a skillful legislator and outstanding leader, earning the nickname the Maryland Demosthenes after the ancient Greek orator and politician. He represented Maryland in the Continental Congresses from 1774 to 1778 and 1784 to 1785 and in 1778 served on as many as thirty committees in his tireless efforts to advance the cause of independence from Britain. He advocated a boycott of Britain and a political confederation of the colonies. He denounced those who opposed such policies as "despicable tools of power, emerged from obscurity and basking in proprietary sunshine." Together with benjamin franklin and Charles Carroll, Chase traveled in 1776 to Montreal in an unsuccessful attempt to persuade Canada to join the American colonies in their revolt against England. He signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 and worked for its acceptance in Maryland.

Chase helped draft the Maryland Constitution in 1776. He served in the Maryland House of Delegates for all but a year and a half between 1777 and 1788. When the U.S. Constitution came before the Maryland Convention for ratification Chase was in the minority of delegates who voted against it. He was an ardent Anti-Federalist at the time and argued that the Constitution concentrated power in the hands of the central government at the expense of the common individual. "I consider the Constitution," he wrote to a friend, "as radically defective in this essential: the bulk of the people can have nothing to say to it. The government is not a government of the people." He also argued that the Constitution failed to protect the freedom of the press and the right to trial by jury.

His opposition to the Constitution cost him his state legislative seat in 1788. The same year, Chase also went bankrupt after several of his speculative business ventures failed. These business risks had also damaged his political career, which had been plagued with charges that he used his office for personal gain. In 1778 he had been dismissed from the Continental Congress for two years for allegedly attempting to corner the flour market and profit from speculation on prices.

Dogged by bankruptcy and charges of corruption, Chase sought refuge in the position of a local judge in Baltimore County in 1788. In 1791 he was concurrently appointed chief judge of the Maryland General Court. The state assembly, upset with his behavior on the bench and his holding two positions as judge, tried unsuccessfully to remove him from both positions.

Chase might seem to have been an unlikely choice for a Supreme Court justice. However, President george washington nominated him to the Supreme Court on January 26, 1796. Over the years Washington had been impressed by Chase's legal skills he also admired the zeal with which Chase had worked for American independence during the Revolutionary War as well as Chase's efforts in support of Washington in the Continental Congress. James McHenry of Maryland, the secretary of war and a friend of Washington's, strongly recommended Chase to Washington. Moreover, the Supreme Court was not very powerful or prestigious at the time and it was difficult to find a lawyer who would accept a position on it. The job did not pay well and justices had to travel long distances to preside over circuit courts.

Chase took his seat on the Court on February 4, 1796. He was an Anti-Federalist at the time of the Constitution's ratification but during his tenure on the Court he became a persuasive advocate for the federal judiciary's power to review legislation. Two cases from Chase's first session on the Supreme Court—Hylton v. United States, 3 U.S. (Dall.) 171, 1 L. Ed. 556, and Ware v. Hylton, 3 U.S. (Dall.) 199, 1 L. Ed. 568, both decided in March 1796—stand out. In Hylton v. United States, the Court for the first time reviewed a law passed by Congress. Although the Court refrained from declaring its ability to void acts of Congress on constitutional grounds, its review nevertheless paved the way for marbury v. madison, 5 U.S. (1 Cranch) 137, 2 L. Ed. 60 (1803), which established the right of the Court to declare laws unconstitutional. At issue in Ware v. Hylton was whether a treaty decided by the federal government could take precedence over state laws. The U.S. government had made a treaty with Great Britain following the Revolutionary War that provided for the payment of debts owed to Great Britain. The states, meanwhile, had passed their own laws on this issue, many of which enabled U.S. citizens to forgo repaying their debts to British citizens. john marshall, future chief justice of the Court, argued the case before the Court for the debtors. The Court ruled that the national treaty had precedent over state law. Of Chase's opinion in this case, constitutional scholar edward s. corwin wrote in 1930 that it "remains to this day the most impressive assertion of the supremacy of national treaties over State laws."

In Calder v. Bull, 3 U.S. (Dall.) 386, 1 L. Ed. 648 (1798), Chase wrote a highly influential opinion for the Court. He defined a constitutional interpretation of ex post facto laws—that is, retroactive laws, or laws that affect matters occurring before their enactment. Chase decided that the Constitution's prohibition of such laws extended only to criminal statutes that make prior conduct a crime, not to civil statutes. Chase also set a precedent by arguing that any law "contrary to the great first principles of the social compact" must be declared void. In his opinion, Chase emphasized that the Constitution limits the ability of legislators to disturb established property rights even when it does not expressly set forth such rights. Described by Presser as the natural-law basis of the Constitution, this argument broadened the Court's ability to test the constitutionality of legislation.

In United States v. Callender, Chase's Trial 65, Whart. St. Tr. 668, 25 F. Cas. 239, No. 14, 709 (C.C. Va.) (1800), Chase further defined the powers of the Court when he ruled that a jury could not decide the constitutionality of a law:

[T]he judicial power of the United States is the only proper and competent authority to decide whether any statute made by congress

(or any of the state legislatures) is contrary to, or in violation of, the federal constitution.… I believe that it has been the general and prevailing opinion in all the Union, that the power now wished to be exercised by a jury, belongs properly to the Federal Courts.

Chase also found himself embroiled in highly publicized political controversy for his actions both on and off the bench. For example, he made partisan speeches in 1796 for john adams, the Federalist party candidate for president, even after he had taken the position of Supreme Court justice. He also pushed for passage of the alien and sedition act, 1 Stat. 596 (1798), which outlawed "false, scandalous, and malicious" attacks on the government, the president, or Congress. The law was designed largely to discourage criticism of President Adams by the rival democratic-republican party, whose most well-known leader was thomas jefferson. In circuit court decisions in 1799 and 1800 Chase imposed harsh sentences on Democratic-Republicans who had published opinions critical of Adams's Federalist administration. In several cases Chase worked to keep Anti-Federalists off juries. In the case of John Fries of Pennsylvania, a strong supporter of Jefferson who had led rebellions against federal excise taxes, Chase sentenced the accused to death. President Adams subsequently set aside the sentence.

In 1800 the political atmosphere in Washington, D.C., changed when Jefferson defeated Adams for the presidency of the United States. In 1803 Chase got into trouble with the Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans when he severely criticized their policies in front of a Baltimore grand jury. Chase explained that he objected to recent changes in Maryland law that gave more men the privilege of voting. Such changes as these advanced by Democratic-Republicans, Chase exclaimed, would

rapidly destroy all protection to property, and all security to personal liberty, and our Republican Constitution [would] sink into mobocracy, the worst of all possible governments.… The modern doctrines by our late reformers, that all men in a state of society are entitled to enjoy equal liberty and equal rights, have brought this mighty mischief upon us, and I fear that it will rapidly destroy progress, until peace and order, freedom and property shall be destroyed.

This angered Jefferson and other Democratic-Republicans and in 1804 the U.S. House of Representatives voted to impeach Chase on charges of misconduct and bias in the sedition cases and of seditious criticism of Jefferson in the 1803 Baltimore grand jury charge. In 1805, the Democratic-Republican–controlled U.S. Senate moved to impeach Chase. Democratic-Republican senators charged that Chase had been guilty of judicial misconduct and that his partisan acts showed that he lacked political objectivity. Federalists defending Chase argued that he had committed no crime and that he could not be convicted under the constitutional definition of high crimes and misdemeanors. The Senate failed to achieve the two-thirds majority necessary to impeach Chase and he remained on the Court until his death.

Chase's acquittal set an important precedent for the Court—no Supreme Court justice could be removed simply because of his or her political beliefs. The failure to impeach Chase allowed Chief Justice Marshall to assert and define the powers of the Court in future decisions with more confidence. It was thus a step in the process of defining the independence of the Supreme Court as one of the three primary branches of U.S. government.

Chase avoided controversy in his subsequent work on the Court. His near impeachment served as a warning both to him and to other justices to be careful in their choice of words while in office. As Chase suffered in later years from declining health, Marshall became the most vocal justice and assumed Chase's position as the lightning rod for the Court.

Chase died June 19, 1811, in Baltimore. He was interred in St. Paul's Cemetery.


Salmon P. Chase: U.S. Senate and Governor of Ohio

Chase first entered politics in 1840, when he served in the Cincinnati city council. He later led the abolitionist Liberty Party and was instrumental in combining it with antislavery Democrats and Whigs to form the Free Soil Party, which opposed the expansion of slavery into the western U.S. territories. Chase coined the party’s famous motto: 𠇏ree Soil, Free Labor and Free Men.”

In 1849 Chase won a seat in the U.S. Senate on the Free Soil ticket, though he later classified himself as an “Independent Democrat.” While in Congress Chase was a prominent opponent of the Compromise of 1850, which introduced new fugitive slave laws. He was also vocal in his criticisms of 1854’s Kansas-Nebraska Act, which allowed the Kansas and Nebraska territories to choose whether they would allow slavery instead of banning the practice outright.

After leaving the U.S. Senate Chase became aligned with the newly formed Republican Party, and in 1855 he was elected governor of Ohio on the Republican ticket. As governor he helped guide a resolution opposing the Fugitive Slave Law through the state legislature.


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Descriptions of Samuel Chase

John Adams, Diary, 15 September 1775

Upon recollecting the Debates of this Day in Congress, there appears to me a remarkable Want of Judgment in some of our Members. Chase is violent and boisterous, asking his Pardon. He is tedious upon frivolous Points.

Mayor and Aldermen of Annapolis, During the Revolution

[Chase was a] busy, restless incendiary, a Ringleader of Mobs—a foul-mouth’d and inflaming son of Discord and Faction—a common Disturber of the public Tranquility, and a Promoter of the lawless excesses of the multitude.

Charles Carroll of Annapolis to Charles Carroll of Carrollton, 7 November 1777

I wrote to Chase with reflection and Cool deliberation. I do & must continue to look upon Him as a Rogue unworthy the Society of Honest Men unless He acknowledges His fault & endeavors Sincerely to Atone for it.

Louis Guillaume Otto, “Biographies”, Fall 1788

Elder member of Congress. Man of superior talents, as much for jurisprudence as for legislation, but whose moral character has often been attacked, without his excuses ever fully justifying himself.

John Adams to Abigail Adams, 6 February 1796

Mr. Chase is a new Judge, but although a good 1774 Man his Character has a Mist about it of suspicion and Impurity which gives occasion to the Enemy to censure. He has been a warm Party Man, and has made many Ennemies. His Corpulency . . . is against his riding Circuit very long.

Stevens Thomson Mason to James Madison, 23 April 1800

Thos. Cooper of Northumberland was tried and convicted on Saturday last for a libel on the President. A more oppressive and disgusting proceeding I never saw. Chase in his charge to the Jury (in a speech of an hour) showed all the zeal of a well fee’d Lawyer and the rancour of a vindictive and implacable enemy.

Philadelphia Aurora, 20 June 1800

Judge Chase [was] An Unprincipled tyrant, totally unfit to be intrusted with any power over the lives or liberties of the free citizens of America.

Manasseh Cutler to F. Poole, 13 February 1804

Judge Chase (one of the largest men I ever saw) is as remarkable for the largeness as Johnny [John Randolph of Roanoke] for the smallness of his size.

Joseph Story to Matthew Bramble, 10 June 1807

Accompanied by Mr. Harper, I paid a visit to Judge Chase, who is a rough, but very sensible man. He has counted nearly seventy winters, and yet possesses considerable vigor and vivacity but the flashes are irregular and sometimes ill-directed. In his person, he is tall, and not unlike [Theophilus] Parsons [that is, corpulent]. I suspect he is the American Thurlow,–bold, impetuous, overbearing, and decisive. He received us very kindly and with all his plainness of manners, I confess that he impressed me with respect.

Joseph Story to Samuel P.P. Fey, 25 February 1808

Of Chase I have formerly written. On a nearer view, I am satisfied that the elements of his mind are of the very first excellence age and infirmity have in some degree impaired them. His manners are coarse, and in appearance harsh but in reality he abounds with good humor. He loves to croak and grumble, and in the very same breath he amuses you extremely by his anecdotes and pleasantry. His first approach is formidable, but all difficulty vanishes when you once understand him. In person, in manners, in unwieldy strength, in severity of reproof, in real tenderness of heart and above all in intellect, he is the living, I had almost said the exact image of Samuel Johnson. To use a provincial expression, I like him hugely.


Census records can tell you a lot of little known facts about your Samuel Chase ancestors, such as occupation. Occupation can tell you about your ancestor's social and economic status.

There are 3,000 census records available for the last name Samuel Chase. Like a window into their day-to-day life, Samuel Chase census records can tell you where and how your ancestors worked, their level of education, veteran status, and more.

There are 642 immigration records available for the last name Samuel Chase. Passenger lists are your ticket to knowing when your ancestors arrived in the USA, and how they made the journey - from the ship name to ports of arrival and departure.

There are 1,000 military records available for the last name Samuel Chase. For the veterans among your Samuel Chase ancestors, military collections provide insights into where and when they served, and even physical descriptions.

There are 3,000 census records available for the last name Samuel Chase. Like a window into their day-to-day life, Samuel Chase census records can tell you where and how your ancestors worked, their level of education, veteran status, and more.

There are 642 immigration records available for the last name Samuel Chase. Passenger lists are your ticket to knowing when your ancestors arrived in the USA, and how they made the journey - from the ship name to ports of arrival and departure.

There are 1,000 military records available for the last name Samuel Chase. For the veterans among your Samuel Chase ancestors, military collections provide insights into where and when they served, and even physical descriptions.


CHASE Genealogy

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IMPEACHMENT TRIAL OF SAMUEL CHASE

IMPEACHMENT TRIAL OF SAMUEL CHASE. On 2 May 1803, U.S. Supreme Court Justice Samuel Chase delivered a charge to a Baltimore grand jury in which he blasted Congress and the Jefferson administration for repealing the Judiciary Act of 1801 and thus unseating federal circuit court judges. He also lashed out at the Maryland legislature for eliminating property qualifications for the franchise and for interfering with the operation of Maryland's courts. Chase railed that America was risking a descent into "mobocracy," which he called "the worst form of all governments." Earlier, in the election year of 1800, he had earned the enmity of the Jeffersonians for his judicial conduct during seditious libel prosecutions of newspaper editors and others who were critical of the incumbent president, John Adams, and sympathetic to his challenger, Jefferson. Chase's active campaigning for Adams similarly secured their ire.

Thus, in 1804, the House of Representatives, with the tacit blessing of Jefferson, brought articles of impeachment against Chase, and he was tried before the Senate in 1805. There were eight articles, but the most important involved the 1803 grand jury charge and the allegedly partisan nature of Chase's conduct of the 1800 trial of James Thompson Callender, who had written a book critical of Adams, and of the trial for treason of John Fries, also in 1800.

The Senate prosecution of Chase was conducted by Representative John Randolph, a firebrand proponent of states' rights from Virginia. At the trial, Randolph presented an emotional but disorganized harangue against Chase. Chase was defended by the finest lawyers the Federalists could assemble, who emphasized that he was not accused of any crimes, but rather was impeached merely because he took legal positions not in accordance with the jurisprudential theories advanced by Jeffersonians. In particular, in the Callender and Fries trials Chase had sought to exclude evidence or arguments that he thought irrelevant and which might mislead the jury. Randolph argued that the juries should have been allowed to determine the law and the facts with a maximum of discretion, but Chase believed the jury had a more narrow role, to apply the law as given to it by the judge to the facts as found from the most reliable evidence. Chase's rulings were in keeping with what was to become American orthodoxy and Randolph's notions were no longer in the mainstream.

Chase's philippic before the Baltimore grand jury was more political than judicial, but the requisite two-thirds majority could not be found in the Senate even for conviction on that conduct. Persuaded that the prosecution of Chase represented an inappropriate attack on the independence of the judiciary, some Jeffersonian Republicans joined all the Federalist members of the Senate in voting to acquit, and thus Chase prevailed. The conventional wisdom regarding the outcome of Chase's impeachment—the only such proceeding ever brought against a U.S. Supreme Court justice—is that it showed that a judge could not be removed simply for taking politically unpopular positions. Less often observed is that the Chase impeachment caused the Supreme Court to shy away from overt displays of politics, and to a great extent, that it caused the federal judges to give up their role as "Republican schoolmasters" to the American public.


The Chase Lloyd House and Chase Home, Inc.

Young Maryland lawyer and future signer of the declaration of independence, Samuel Chase, started the construction of the Chase-Lloyd house in 1769 when he was just 25. Before Chase ran out of money in 1771, the unknown architect and builders Chase hired finished the foundation and outer shell of the Georgian style mansion. From its unusually tall three-story height, it is evident that Chase wanted his home to rival those of his far wealthier neighbors in grandeur. He, however, had to sell the unfinished mansion and settle for a less grand home elsewhere.

Chase sold the house to the wealthy plantation-owner, Edward Lloyd IV. Like Chase, Lloyd wanted a home in Annapolis so that he could establish himself in politics. At the time of the purchase, he had just been elected as delegate for Talbot County on the eastern shore where his plantations and primary residence were located. Lloyd hired the famous colonial architect, William Buckland, to finish the interior.

William Buckland continued the perfect Georgian symmetry of the outside of the home on the inside. He even installed false doors to keep the symmetrical aesthetic going on the first floor. The contrast of the austere elegance of the exterior and elaborately decorative moldings and plaster ceilings of the interior are also indicative of the Georgian style. The height of Buckland skill is, however, shown in the central cantilevered staircase and the Palladian window that the first tier of the staircase leads to. Buckland finished the home in 1774.

The Chase-Lloyd House is one of the last of its kind to be built in Annapolis. Though the house has been restored and updated for modern use many times, it has remained true to its initial design.

Samuel Chase

Samuel Chase was born on April 17 th , 1741 in Maryland’s Somerset County to the English-born Rev. Thomas Chase and Matilda Walker Chase. Chase was an only child, because, unfortunately, his mother died in childbirth. In 1744, he moves to Baltimore where he was educated primarily by his father in the classics. In 1759 at the age of 18, Chase leaves for Annapolis to study law at the offices of attorney John Hall. He started his own law practice in Annapolis, after he is accepted to the Bar in 1761. The very next year he married Anne Baldwin. They go on to have 7 children together, 3 who die in infancy.

Samuel Chase was an active leader in the Sons of Liberty by the time the Stamp Act comes around in 1763. In 1764, Chase was elected to the Lower House of Maryland’s colonial legislature. He is elected to represent Maryland in the Continental Congress in 1774, where he ardently advocated independence. He, of course, signs the Declaration of Independence in 1776. He then helps Maryland draft its new constitution and is elected to the Maryland house of delegates for every year between 1777 and 1788, but one. Samuel Chase remarries in 1784 to Hannah Kitty Giles (Anne Baldwin died in 1776). They have two daughters together.

Samuel Chase was always a passionate politician and it served him well in the pre-revolutionary and Revolutionary war periods of American history, but he suffers many scandals because of his zeal in the years to come. He is elected once again to the Continental Congress in 1788, and as an anti-federalist voted against the ratification of the Constitution. Alexander Hamilton also revealed his furtive attempts to corner the flour market that year. Thus Chase was forced to momentarily retire from the National stage. Bankrupt and charged with corruption, Chase managed to obtain a position as a local judge for Baltimore County. In 1791, he also obtained the position of chief judge of the Maryland General Court and held them simultaneously. Upset by this, the state assembly tried to get Chase removed from both position, but they fail.

In 1796, Chases fortunes take a turn for the better. Remembering his legal prowess and passion during the revolution, the now president George Washington appointed Samuel Chase to the Supreme Court. In several cases, Chases supported federal law over state law and defined ex post facto in Calder v. Bull. In a drastic change of position from his revolutionary days, Chase made several important decisions on the bench in favor of strengthening the power of the federal government. Under federalist president John Adams, Chase became highly critical of the opposing Democratic-Republican Party and a vocal supporter of the controversial Alien and Sedition Act. In a turning of the political tides, democratic-republican Thomas Jefferson is elected president in the next election. In 1804, president Jefferson and the democratic-republican controlled senate try to impeach Samuel Chase for having a judicial bias. To this day, Chase is the only Supreme Court justice to have been impeached. Since he never actually committed a crime, the senate failed to get the two-thirds majority they needed to impeach him. Chases acquittal established the Supreme Court as a completely separate branch of government, not controlled by the executive branch. It also chastened the justices into maintaining political objectivity.

Chase stayed on the Supreme Court until his death is 1811. He is buried in St. Paul’s cemetery in Baltimore.

Edward Lloyd IV

Edward Lloyd the fourth was a fifth generation Maryland planter. His family had lived on the Wye plantation in Talbot County on the eastern shore since 1649. He was one of the 3 children of Edward Lloyd III and Anne Rousby Lloyd who survived to adulthood. He was educated by private tutors from King William’s College (now St. Johns College). Lloyd married Elizabeth Tayloe in 1767 and they had seven children together, six daughters and one son. Upon his father’s death in 1770, he inherited a large portion of his father’s estate. Despite having fewer holdings than his father, Lloyd’s plantations were actually more profitable. He grew tobacco, like most plantation owners did, but also grain and livestock.

The Lloyds were a politically active and influential family. In 1771, Edward Lloyd IV was elected to represent Talbot County at the Maryland General Assembly. He bought and completed the Chase-Lloyd House for him and his family to live in while he was in office. Several of his children were born here and his youngest daughter, Mary Tayloe, was married to Francis Scott Key, the writer of the National Anthem, here in 1802.

Lloyd was re-elected in 1773, which would be the last election in Maryland under the rule of Lord Baltimore. After the revolution, Lloyd was on the executive council of the first Governor, Thomas Johnson, under Maryland’s new constitution for the first three years of the new government. In 1780 he was elected a Delegate to the Lower House of Assembly from Talbot County, and then in 1781 he was chosen by the Electoral College to be the State Senator for the Eastern Shore. In 1781, the revolutionary war was not over. British troops razed the Wye plantation and stole gold, silver jewelry and 8 slaves. Luckily none of the Lloyd family was home. Despite this scare, Lloyd served as a state senator until his death. He also served as a congressional senator in 1783 and 1784 under the Articles of Confederation. Though he did not attend the first Continental Congress (the one that wrote up the Declaration of Independence) he did attend the Continental Congress of 1788. This was the Continental Congress in which the Constitution was proposed and ratified. Lloyd, unlike Samuel Chase, voted for ratification.

In 1796, Lloyd died and was buried in his family cemetery at the Wye house. The Wye house is still owned and lived in by his decedents today.

Edward Lloyd V

Edward Lloyd the fourth’s fifth child and only son, Edward Lloyd the fifth, was only 16 when his father died. He married Sally Scott Murray in 1797, a year after his father’s death. In 1800, he reached the age of 21 and inherited his family plantation and the Chase-Lloyd House. (He also used the Chase-Lloyd House as a town house while he was in office.) The very same year, Lloyd was elected to the Maryland House of Delegates. He served there until 1805, when he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives.

In 1809, he won the governorship of Maryland by a landslide. The Chase-Lloyd House became known as the Governor’s mansion. In his delegate days, he had championed and won some minor battles for universal suffrage and as Governor he lessened the restriction for political candidates. He served until 1811, and then joined the War of 1812 as Lieutenant Colonel of the 9th Regiment of Maryland Militia. After the war, he served the Maryland senate and the U.S. senate. He sold the Chase-Lloyd House is 1826 to his brother-in-law, Henry Hall Harwood, for $6,500.

Lloyd died in 1834 at the age 54 at his mother-in-law’s house in Annapolis.

Hester Anne Chase and Hester Anne Chase Ridout

The Harwood’s owned the house until 1846, when they sold it to Hester Anne Chase for $5000. Chase’s father was Jeremiah Chase, a cousin of Samuel Chase, so the ownership of the Chase-Lloyd House had finally come full circle. As an un-married woman with no children of her own, she had bought the home to raise her three orphan nieces, Matilda, Francis, and Hester, in. The Chase-Lloyd House was also conveniently right across the street from the home of her still living sister. Chase was regarded as the wealthiest woman in Annapolis. She was one of the incorporating members of the Annapolis water company and one of the top investor at the Annapolis Gas Light Company.

Hester Anne Chase Ridout and her sisters inherited the house when their aunt died. By 1885, both Francis and Matilda had died in the house, leaving Hester as the sole heir. She wrote up her will in 1886, establishing the house as an independent living facility for elderly woman, and set up a board of trustees to run the house according to the requirements of her will. The board of trustees has now been successfully running the house now for over a century.


Watch the video: Samuel Chase (September 2022).

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